Die storie

Rudolf Binding

Rudolf Binding


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Rudolf Binding is gebore in Basel in 1867. Hy het medies en regte studeer voordat hy by die Huzaren aangesluit het. By die uitbreek van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het Binding, wat ses-en-veertig jaar oud was, bevelvoerder geword van 'n eskader drake. Behalwe vir 'n tydperk van vier maande in Galicië in 1916, het Binding die hele oorlog aan die Westelike Front deurgebring.

Binding se dagboek en briewe, A Fatalist at War, is in 1927 gepubliseer. Sy versamelde oorlogsgedigte, verhale en herinneringe is eers na sy dood in 1938 gepubliseer.

Ek loop elke dag verby die ruïnes van 'n huis waarin ek die eerste dae van die aanval by 'n paar manne en perde skuil. In hierdie tyd was dit duidelik dat die inwoners pas die plaas verlaat het. Slegs twee baie ou mense wat nie weggebring kon word nie, sit styf en onbeweeglik aan weerskante van die sterwende vuur in die rooster. Die twee het daar gesit soos toebehore in die huis, soos dinge wat daar was en altyd op dieselfde plek was. Of dit nou met hulle gepraat is of nie, hulle het geen woord uitgespreek nie. My manne het die vuur opgebou en die kaggel daagliks gebruik. Hulle het nie geroer nie.

Aangesien ons genoeg gehad het om na onsself te kyk, het ons dit heeltemal vergeet. Op die derde aand het ek 'n gebukkende, dom en swak gevormde jong wyfie in die donkerte van die kamer gewaar, wat die kole versigtig en vurig gestook het en die ou mense versorg het. Ek het ontdek dat hierdie dier aan die huishouding behoort en na êrens agter gevlug het. Sy waag dit om net in die nag te kom, kyk na die twee ou mense en het, nadat sy die vuur gemaak het, sonder 'n woord vertrek.

Die volgende dag is ek te voet daarheen. Die twee sit, ou mense sit roerloos op hul sitplekke soos voorheen, die vuur het afgebrand en blink tussen hulle. 'N Krieket wat skuil agter die warm vuurherd van die komende winter, het kinderlike, intieme musiek gemaak, asof hy wou sê dat dit goed is om hier te wees.

Die volgende oggend is die huis afgebrand, deur vyandelike vuur vernietig. Die twee ou mense het verdwyn. Ek weet nie of hulle dood of lewendig is nie. Dit is nou helder oor die donker vuurherd wat na die hemel oop is. Die krieket tjirp steeds sy sorgelose liedjie tussen die warm klippe van die haard. Maar ook hy sal môre swyg.

Ek het lanklaas aan u geskryf, maar ek het u nog meer as 'n stille skuldeiser beskou. Maar as 'n mens briewe skuld, ly jy terselfdertyd daaraan. Dit is inderdaad nie so eenvoudig om uit die oorlog te skryf nie, regtig uit die oorlog; en wat u as Field Post -briewe in die koerante lees, het gewoonlik hul oorsprong in die gebrek aan begrip wat 'n mens nie toelaat om die oorlog in die hande te kry nie, dit in te asem, alhoewel hy te midde daarvan woon.

Hoe verder ek die ware innerlikheid daarvan binnedring, hoe meer sien ek die hopeloosheid daarvan om dit omvattend te maak vir diegene wat die lewe slegs in die tyd van vredestyd verstaan, en dit ten spyte van hulself op idees toepas. Hulle dink net dat hulle dit verstaan. Dit is asof visse in water 'n duidelike idee het van hoe dit in die lug lyk. As iemand na die droë land vervoer word en in die lug sterf, sal hy iets daarvan weet.

So is dit ook met die oorlog. As u diep daaroor voel, kan u elke dag minder daaroor praat. Nie omdat 'n mens dit elke dag minder verstaan ​​nie, maar omdat jy dit beter verstaan. Maar dit is 'n stille leraar, en hy wat leer, swyg ook.


A Fatalist at War: die eerste wêreldoorlog -dagboeke van Rudolf Binding

In teenstelling met die groot aantal Britse oorlogsdagboeke, waarvan baie in die Imperial War Museum of National Archives uitgestal word, is daar relatief min Duitse wat oorleef. Nog minder is vertaal.

In A Fatalist at War, wat in 1929 twee keer herdruk is toe dit die eerste keer in Engels vertaal is, beskryf Rudolf Binding, 'n Duitse digter en romanskrywer, hoe België hierdie maand honderd jaar gelede verwoes is vanuit die oogpunt van die veroweraar.

Hy skryf sy wrange, soms filosofiese, waarnemings terwyl die Duitse besetters hul in die oesjare van geplunderde wynkelders toegee, maar gou brandstof vir hul tenks opraak. In die laaste week van Oktober 1914 het Binding besin oor wat 'n lang uitputtingsoorlog geword het.

In Campchendaele, Wes-Vlaandere, het hy geskryf: 'As 'n mens die vermorsende, brandende dorpe en dorpe, geplunderde kelders en solder sien, waarin die troepe alles in stukke geskeur het in die blinde instink van selfbehoud, dood of halfhonger. diere, beeste wat in die suikerbietlande bult, en dan lyke, lyke en lyke, strome gewondes na mekaar-dan word alles sinneloos, 'n kranksinnigheid, 'n aaklige slegte grap van mense en hul geskiedenis, 'n eindelose smaad vir die mensdom ... sodat 'n mens voel dat alle menslike begin in hierdie oorlog gedoem is. "

'N Paar dae later:' Dit is die dertiende dag van ononderbroke gevegte op dieselfde plek ... ek noem dit nie 'n sukses as 'n sloot, 'n paar honderd gevangenes, gevange geneem word nie. Hulle het altyd meer bloed gekos as wat hulle werd is. Die oorlog het vasgeval in 'n reuse -beleg aan beide kante. Die hele voorkant is 'n eindelose versterkte loopgraaf. Nie een van die twee partye het die mag om 'n beslissende druk te maak nie. Dit bewys dat generaalskap ontbreek ... Daar is geen terugkeer na Passchendaele nie. Die ruïne hier is onbeskryflik ... In 'n sitkamer was 'n dooie perd met die helfte van sy ingewande oor die geel systoele en kussings. Ek kan nie raai hoe dit daar gekom het nie. "

Passchendaele, 27 November 1914: ''n Groot stryd is aan die gang vir die kruispad by Broodseinde, suidwes van Passchendaele. Generaals en kolonels flirt met die idee dat om die kruispad te neem ... iets in die geskiedenis van die wêreld kan beteken. ”

'Slegs 'n maand gelede is hierdie land moontlik ryk genoem, daar was baie beeste en varke. Nou is dit leeg, nie 'n wynkelder in enige stad wat nie vir die Duitsers aangevra is nie. Nie 'n kruideniersware, 'n mieliebakkie of suiwel nie, maar moet hul goedere net aan die Duitsers verkoop ... hierdie land en gin in die kroeë - en gee die butler nie eens twee frank nie. ”

Drywege, 10 Desember 1914: "Ons sit in die duister ... ons gee nie om of 'n 88 Margaux in 'n kasteel gevind kan word nie. Wat ons in die kelder wil vind, is 'n vat petroleum."

Drywege, Oujaarsaand 1914: 'Die geskiedenis van hierdie oorlog sal nooit geskryf word nie. Diegene wat dit kon skryf, sal swyg. Diegene wat skryf, het dit nie beleef nie. ”

Somme -omgewing, 31 Mei 1917: “Die oorlog kruip soos 'n motor sonder petrol, 'n perd sonder hawer of 'n mens sonder lewensvreugde ... Dit lyk vir my asof die wêreld besig is om 'n legkaart te verslind en niemand kon die regte stukke vind om mee af te sluit nie. ”

Voor die offensief, 20 Maart 1918 (die Duitsers het die sogenaamde Lente -offensief geloods, 'n reeks mislukte aanvalle langs die westelike front wat die begin van die einde vir die Duitse Ryk sou wees), het Binding gesê: 'Ons eie doel is die gebied waar ons in Januarie en Februarie verlede jaar gelê het. ”

Aisecourt-le-Bas, 19 April 1918: “Dit is feitlik seker dat die rede hoekom ons Amiens nie bereik het nie, die plundering by Albert en Moreuil was ... Die twee plekke, wat redelik maklik gevang is, bevat soveel wyn dat die afdelings, wat behoorlik deur hulle moes getrek het, was omtrent ongeskik om in die kamers en kelders te veg. ”

'Die troepe, wat die volgende dag uit Albert getrek het met wyn en in 'n oorweldigende gees, is met 'n paar Engelse masjiengewere dadelik op die spoorwal afgemaai.

Bivak tussen Brushwood, 30 Julie 1918: Gistermiddag het 30 groot vliegtuie, mooi begelei deur vyandelike vegvliegtuie en mooi alleen gelaat deur die Duitse vlieëniers, ons gereeld bomme gejaag. Die arme perde het besonder swaar gely, want hulle kan hulself nie plat gooi of bome klim nie. ”

4 Augustus 1918: 'Almal is moeg vir die oorlog ... Uiteindelik, selfs al kry 'n individuele nasie nie sy woestyne nie, sal die mensdom dit doen. Hierdie generasie het geen toekoms nie, en verdien geen. Almal wat daaraan behoort, leef nie meer nie. ”

Binding het ineengestort met slootkoors en dysenterie net voor die wapenstilstand op 11 November 1918.


Wat is die oorsprong van voetbinding?

Die antieke oorsprong van voetbinding is nie seker nie, maar volgens sommige berigte strek voetbinding tot by die Shang -dinastie (1700 - 1027 vC). Volgens die legende het die Shang -keiserin 'n klompvoet gehad, en daarom het sy geëis dat voetbinding in die hof verpligtend gemaak word.

Resultate van voedselbinding. (Krediet: Jo Farrell)

Historiese verslae uit die Song -dinastie (960 - 1279 n.C.) dateer egter uit die voetbinding tydens die bewind van Li Yu, wat tussen 961 en 975 nC oor 'n gebied in China geheers het. Daar word gesê dat sy hart vasgevang is deur 'n byvrou, Yao Niang, 'n talentvolle danser wat haar voete gebind het om die vorm van 'n nuwe maan voor te stel en 'n "lotusdans" uitgevoer het. Toe sy haar voete vasbind en op die lotus dans, word die praktyk immers baie modieus; sy was die gunsteling byvrou van die keiser. Die ander byvroue het probeer om haar na te volg om die guns van die keiser te verkry.

Teen die 12de eeu het voetbinding baie meer wydverspreid geword, en teen die vroeë Qing-dinastie (in die middel van die 17de eeu) het elke meisie wat wou trou, haar voete gebind.

Illustrasie waarop Yaoniang haar voete vasbind. Qing -dinastie houtblokafdruk vanHonderd gedigte van pragtige vroue. ’(Public Domain)

Onlangse studies toon egter aan dat die huwelik nie die enigste motivering vir hierdie praktyk was nie. Meisies het ook hul voete vasgemaak om hulle tuis te hou en aan aktiwiteite soos katoendraai te werk, wat 'n gesin se inkomste kan aanvul.


Rudolf G. Binding

Rudolf Georg Binding (n. 13 Augustus 1867, [1] [3] [4] [5] Basel, Cantonul Basel-Oraș, Elveția-d. 4 Augustus 1938, [1] [3] [4] [5] Starnberg, Beiere, Germania Nazistă) 'n fost by un scriitor German and his susininor al lui Adolf Hitler.

Die basel in Elveția. 'N Studente wat 'n geneesmiddel gebruik, kan ook 'n algemene oorsaak hê. La izbucnirea Primului Război Mondial, Binding, care avaea patruzeci și șase de ani, a devenit comandantul unui escadron de dragoni. As 'n unieke deel van die patru luni, in Galiția, in 1916, word 'n volledige weergawe van 'n parcursul războiului pe Frontul de Vest.

Jurnalul en scrisorile lui Binding, 'N Fatalis in oorlog, au fost publicate in 1927. Gedigte, povestirile en amintirile sale de război au apărut abia după moartea sa, in 1938.

Bind nou 'n fost niciodată membru al Partidului Nasionale Sosialistiese en 'n disociat public de una din acțiunile sale dar relația lui cu mișcarea nazistă a fost destul de ambiguă deoarece el a văzut-o uneori ca un aspect al renașterii națale

In 1928 word 'n medalje vir die samelewing van die Jocurile Olimpice van "Reitvorschrift für eine Geliebte" ("Instrucțiunile unui călăreț pentru iubita lui") beskryf.

In 1933 word die sekretaris van 'n spesiale vertaling van die Duitse Elisabeth Jungmann vertolk. Bindend is dit vir ons 'n goeie idee vir Jungmann. [6] Ea a devenit a doua soție a lui Sir Max Beerbohm in 1956.

In Oktober 1933 Bind 'n semnat Gelöbnis treuester Gefolgschaft, verklaar en lojaliteer spi sprijin față van Adolf Hitler.


Die era van die masjiene

Die 1800's dui op die begin van die Industriële Revolusie, wat ook die uitwerking op die boekbindbedryf gehad het. Masjiene het in alle vervaardigingsprosesse begin gebruik word en die tradisionele en inspanbare handtegnieke begin vervang (meer inligting hier).

Figuur 9. Boekruggraat met vals bande

In die boekbindbedryf het die 'gemeganiseerde' metodologieë beide hul voor- en nadele. Die tyd en moeite is aansienlik verminder, maar die nuwe style en ontwerpe was ongelukkig net 'n agteruitgang. Voorheen is leer deur handbediening vasgemaak, maar met die koms van masjiene is die hele panele net in een beweging gestempel. Hierdie nuwe metode het die koste verlaag omdat daar nou baie min tyd nodig was.

Figuur 10. Boekbind Boekkonstruksie.

Namate masjientegnologie gebruik is, het die bindings ook verander. Die koms van lapbande vervang die toue wat in die naaldwerk gebruik is. Dit het die hele ruggraat of die sypaneel van die boeke verander. Vals bande is ook aangebring om die voorkoms van die ou band te behou, maar dieselfde effek kon nie bereik word nie. Figuur 9 toon die ruggraat met vals bande. Met verdere vordering het die nuwe saakbinding ook na vore gekom wat die toegewerkte handtekeninge heeltemal uitgeskakel het. In plaas daarvan is die beskermende omslag en die ruggraat net op 'n dik papier of 'n lap vasgeplak, wat 'n soort geval was. Hierdie boks word dan op die handtekeninge vasgemaak met behulp van gom, lap en eindblaaie. Dit word getoon in figuur 10.


Vrylating! Geskiedenis van veiligheidsbindings

Die eerste 'veiligheids' -bindings deur die Portland -skiër Hjalmar Hvam was nie so veilig nie. Maar 50 jaar gelede het Cubco, Miller, Look en Marker begin om die beeld van die gebroke been van ski te verander.

(Eerste gepubliseer in Skiing History, September 2002)

Teen die middel van die dertigerjare was die helfte van die groot uitvindings van alpiene ski reeds in plek. Die standaard middellyf- en deurvorm vir 'n draaiski is 80 jaar tevore deur Sondre Norheim gevestig. Rudolph Lettner het die staalrand in 1928 bekendgestel, en die eerste gelamineerde ski's - met asblaaie en harde basisse van hickory of selfs bakelietplastiek - is in 1932 vervaardig. .

Te stewig. Elke jaer kan van tyd tot tyd 'n been breek, en sommige van die klassieke Europese afdraande het tot 'n derde van die inskrywingslys gehospitaliseer. Rondom 1937 het 'n klein onderneming in Megève, Reussner-Beckert, 'n primitiewe neus vrygestel. Die Skiklub van Groot -Brittanje het genoeg daarvan gehou om 'n prys van 25 pond aan te bied vir die beste "veiligheidsbinding" wat in die komende jaar vervaardig is. Die wen -inskrywing, van ene P. Schwarze van St. Gallen, Switserland, het voorgeskryf dat die neus ook loskom - maar opwaarts, nie lateraal nie, as die skoen loskom van die hakskabel.

Sommige van die helderder ligte in die skigemeenskap het met tuisgemaakte vrystellingstelsels geëksperimenteer. Een van hierdie helderder ligte - en een van die beseerde jaers - was 'n elegant lang, skraal atleet met die naam Hjalmar Hvam. Soos Mikkel Hemmestveit en talle Noorweërs voor hom, was Hvam 'n groot Nordiese kampioen wat in 1902 na die VSA geëmigreer het. Hvam het op 12 -jarige ouderdom sy eerste springwedstryd gewen en konsekwent gewen deur sy tienerjare. Maar hy spring in die skaduwee van die plaaslike Ruud -broers - Birger, Sigmund en Asbjorn - wat al die Kongsberg -spangleuwe by die jaarlikse Holmenkollen -klassieke opgeraap het.

Hvam het opgehou ski en emigreer in 1923 na Kanada, arriveer in 1927 in Portland. Hy werk as arbeider in 'n houtmolen totdat hy in 1929 by die Cascade Ski Club aansluit. , met 'n hoogtepunt op die nasionale kampioenskappe in 1932 in Lake Tahoe, waar hy beide die spring- en landloopbyeenkomste gewen het om die Nordiese gekombineerde kampioenskap te neem. Hy was op alpiene ski's bedoel en het albei lopies van sy heel eerste slalomren in 1933 gewen - die Oregon -staatskampioenskappe. Op geleende ski's.

Hierdie ervaring het gelei tot twaalf agtereenvolgende afdraande oorwinnings in 1935 en 1936, waaronder die Silver Ski's op Mount Rainier en die eerste wedloop van die Golden Rose -wedloop op Mount Hood. Op Mount Baker, in 1936, wen hy 'n vierrigtingkompetisie met oorwinnings in al vier dissiplines-spring, landloop, slalom en afdraande. Hy kwalifiseer daardie jaar vir die Amerikaanse Olimpiese Span, maar kon nie meeding nie, want hy was nog steeds 'n burger van Noorweë.

In 1935 het hy die Hjalmar Hvam Ski -winkel in Noordwes -Portland geopen, met 'n tak by Mt. Hood. Die stadswinkel het 'n uitstekende ligging, reg op die 23ste St. -trollie -lyn uit die middestad. Hvam het eerstehands die tientalle beserings opgedoen wat sy kliënte sowel as mededingende renjaers opgedoen het. Niemand het nasionale rekords gehou nie, maar dit blyk dat die beseringsyfer verskriklik was. Kenners van ski -beserings soos dr. Jasper Shealy en Carl Ettlinger skat dat ongeveer 1 persent van die skiërs in die jare net voor en na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog op 'n gegewe dag 'n besering opgedoen het - dus is dit waarskynlik dat teen die einde van die seisoen 10 persent van alle skiërs buite kommissie was. Ongeveer die helfte van hierdie beserings was waarskynlik onderbeenbreuke. Die mees sigbare après-ski-bykomstighede was gips en krukke. Dit was nie 'n resep vir kommersiële sukses op lang termyn nie.

Hvam, wat opgelei is as 'n meganiese kunstenaar, het begin peuter met strykysters en op soek na 'n betroubare manier om die skoen in 'n val te laat los. Die probleem destyds, soos nou, was hoe om 'n gesofistikeerde grendel te maak wat 'n skiër inhou vir normale ski -maneuvers - stuur, kant, spring, land, maar los in abnormale of komplekse val. Dit was 'n legkaart.

Besering lei tot uitvinding

Hvam se “Eureka!” oomblik onder die invloed van 'n kragtige narkose gekom. In Junie 1937 wen Hvam weer die Golden Rose op Mount Hood en klim saam met 'n paar vriende om 'n bietjie kroonlys te spring. Die resultaat was voorspelbaar: in die lentesneeu moes iemand deur die kors slaan en 'n been breek. Hierdie keer was dit Hvam, en hy het 'n spiraalbreuk opgedoen. Hy is na die St. Vincent -hospitaal in Portland gestuur vir 'n operasie. "Toe ek uit die eter kom, bel ek die verpleegster vir 'n potlood en papier," het hy dekades later geskryf. 'Ek het wakker geword met die volledige beginsel van 'n los yster.'

Wat hy hom voorgestel het, lyk soos 'n eenvoudige draaibare klem wat in die solderflens van die bagasieruim gekerf is. 'N Interne meganisme het die spilpunt in die middel gehou, solank die stewels teen die clip vasgedruk word. Maar toe die druk verwyder word, soos in 'n ernstige voorwaartse leun, is die clip losgemaak om sywaarts te swaai. So het Hvam voorsiening gemaak vir sywaartse loslating van die tone in 'n vorentoe-leunende, kronkelende val.
In 1939 breek Hvam weer die been, hierdie keer terwyl hy sy eie binding toets. Hy het altyd beweer dat die been nooit behoorlik genees het nie, maar dit het wel die les geleer dat 'veiligheids' -bindings nie altyd veilig is nie. Nietemin het Hvam sy Saf-Ski-binding op die mark geloods. Sy vrylatingstoen is met entoesiasme deur sy wedrenne en springvriende ontvang. Springers het dit gebruik deur 'n hakhyser onder die bagasiebak in te steek en sodoende die yster vas te druk sodat dit nie kon draai nie. Dit was 'n nuttelose oefening, maar professionele springers uit die noordweste wou hul vriend ondersteun.

Baie renjaers het die idee van 'n loslating toe met ernstige agterdog bejeën, veral nadat Olaf Rodegaard van sy Hvam -binding in 'n reuse -slalom losgekom het. Rodegaard was egter oortuig dat die vrylating sy been gered het en die band gehou het. Hvam het 'n paar dosyn pare verkoop voor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog uitgebreek het, en het probeer om die Pentagon te laat koop om die tone vir die 10de Bergafdeling te koop - maar die troepe het weggestuur voordat hy 'n ooreenkoms kon sluit. Minstens drie pare Saf-Ski-ysters is met die afdeling na Italië, deur Rodegaard en die Idaho-broers Leon en Don Goodman (die Goodmans stel hul eie vrystellingsbinding bekend in 1952). So het die eerste bindings vir produksievrystellings hul weg na Europa gevind, stewig vasgeskroef aan GI Northland- en Groswold -ski's.

Na die oorlog het Hvam die band in verskillende weergawes vervaardig vir kleinhandel en verhuring. Dit is algemeen aanvaar deur sy vriende in die spring- en wedrenne, ten minste in die Weste. Hy verkoop 2 500 pare in 1946-47, en kyk hoe 'n dosyn Noord-Amerikaanse maatskappye die beginsel vinnig naboots. Sy nuwe mededingers was Anderson en Thompson, Dovre, Northland, Gresvig, Krystal, U.S. Star en O-U.

Euro's Ontwikkel vrystellingstelsels

Daar was ook Europese uitvindings. In 1948, in Nevers, Frankryk, bou die vervaardiger van sportartikels, Jean Beyl, 'n bordband in die ski. Daar is geen bewyse dat Beyl geïnspireer is deur Amerikaanse strykysters nie, en sy binding was gebaseer op 'n heeltemal ander beginsel. Dit het die skoen nie in 'n val losgemaak nie - in plaas daarvan het dit omgedraai om die onderbeen te beskerm teen draai, sonder om eintlik van die ski los te kom. Dit het iets gedoen wat geen ander band kon doen nie: dit sou 'n kortstondige skok absorbeer en terugkeer na die sentrum. Die laterale elastisiteit van die band was 'n revolusionêre idee, en dit sou nog twee dekades nie deur ander vervaardigers gedupliseer word nie. Die bord elimineer ook die buigsame leer ski -stewelsool uit die losmaakmeganisme, wat die betroubaarheid aansienlik verbeter. Beyl wou die produk 'n Amerikaans-klinkende naam gee, en besluit oor die titel van 'n glansryke weeklikse prentetydskrif wat in New York gepubliseer is. Teen 1950 het Beyl verskeie lede van die Franse span gepraat oor die gebruik van sy Look -bord, waaronder die wêreldkampioene Henri Oreiller en James Couttet.

Norm Macleod, een van die vennote in die Amerikaanse invoeronderneming Beconta, onthou dat die probleme met die Look -plaat gewig en dikte was. Om die band te installeer, moes 'n werktuigkundige 'n lang, diep gat in die bokant van die ski kerf. "Die bord is in die bokant van die ski vasgemaak en daarom moes die ski dik wees," sê Macleod. 'Dit was ongeveer 'n sentimeter in die ski en het nog 6 of 7 millimeter bo die boonste oppervlak vasgesteek. Daar was weerstand daarteen. Racers het gedink dit is voordelig om nader aan die ski te wees. ”

In 1950 skep Beyl dus die Look Nevada-toon, die eerste herkenbare moderne bindontwerp, met 'n lang veerbelaaide suier om baie elastiese sye vir skokabsorbering te bied. Beyl was 'n perfeksionis in 'n era toe die meeste bindings van gestempel staal was, sy Nevada was van duur, swaar gegote aluminium. Dit was amper koeëlvast. Dit was 'n tweesnoer-eenheid, dit wil sê die hoofdraaibare liggaam wat langs 'n tweede draaipunt gedra is, waarop die neusbeker gemonteer is, wat verseker dat die neusbeker parallel met die steweltoon beweeg.

Hannes Marker, 'n boorling van Berlyn wat geleer het om te ski as 'n Wehrmacht -soldaat in Noorweë, is na die oorlog na Garmisch en het 'n werk gekry as 'n burgerlike ski -instrukteur vir die Amerikaanse leër se ontspanningsentrum, waar Leon Goodman toesighouer was oor die ski skool. Daar sien hy die in Amerika gemaakte tone, en dink: "Ek kan beter doen." In 1952 stel hy sy Duplex-toon voor, 'n tweedelige neus wat die hoeke van die neus van die boot vasgryp op dieselfde manier as wat toekomstige knypbindings sou werk. Hy het dit gevolg, in 1953, met die Simplex. Net soos die Look toe, en in teenstelling met die Hvam, was dit verstelbaar vir losmaakspanning, en was dit die eerste release toe wat wyd deur racers buite Frankryk aanvaar is. En net soos die Look Nevada, was die Simplex 'n dubbele spilstelsel.

Cubberley val hak vry

Ander skelmwerkers was hard aan die werk. Begin in 1948, in Nutley, N.J., het die meganiese ingenieur en die skiër Mitch Cubberley 'n vernuftige gedagte oor die probleem van ski se gebroke been. Op die ski saam met sy vriend Joe Powers in Highmount, Belleayre en Bromley, het Cubberley tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat 'n belangrike probleem - tot dusver deur niemand aangespreek nie - onbetroubare hak vrylating is, wat voortspruit uit die kombinasie van die sagte leer stewelsool, die langdraadomslag wat gebruik is om die slordige leerbootmanchet en die komplekse, slangagtige Kandahar -hakskabel. Hy het uitgevind hoe hy die hakskabel en die greep op die sagte leersool kan verwyder, en 'n elegante veerbeheerde grendel ontwerp wat aan beide tone en hak gemonteer kan word.

'N Sleutelelement van die Cubberley -ontwerp was die bagasieplaat. Staalplate is stewig aan die toon en hak van die bagasiebout vasgeskroef, en die veerbelasting het hierdie plate eerder as 'n sagte, nat, buigsame stewelsool vasgeklem. Die metaal-tot-metaal-kontak bied meer konsekwente vrylating en verminderde wrywing van boot tot ski. Cubberley het gedurende die winter van 1949-50 ongeveer 200 stelle verkoop. In Orem, Utah, was Earl Miller op 'n parallelle baan, en 'n bitter wedywering het tussen die twee mans gegroei.

In Annecy, Frankryk, vervaardig Georges Salomon, vervaardiger van staal ski -rande en kabelhakbindings, sy eie neus, die Skade, om te verkoop met sy gewilde Lift -kabelhak. Dit was nie 'n enkel-draai-ontwerp, soos die Look, of 'n tweedraaibare toon, soos die Marker nie, maar het eerder 'n paar rollagers gebruik, wat op 'n staalkam gery het, om die teenbeker in sy sywaartse reis te lei. Dit was 'n minder elegante stelsel, maar dit het gewerk, en Salomon het 'n lys ski -jaers aangemeld om dit te onderskryf. Die basiese ontwerp, versterk met meer aansienlike gietstukke, het uiteindelik die topverkoper S.444 en S.555 bindings opgelewer.

In 1952 het Mitch Cubberley 'n patent -eenheid gepatenteer wat in alle rigtings sou los, en die verkope het begin. Teen 1955 het hy 'n lip aan sy hakskeen vasgemaak en die eerste stap-in-hak geskep. Earl Miller het sy eie band die Hanson genoem. Hy het verskeie winters deurgebring deur die binding te bevorder deur homself in vreesaanjaende tuimels te werp om die vrylating daarvan aan te toon.

Terug in Portland het Hvam elke jaar 'n paar duisend paar Saf-Ski-tone uitgehaal. In 1952, op 50 -jarige ouderdom, het hy die Amerikaanse Nordic Combined -span by Holmenkollen afgerig - en gevind dat hy nog die meeste van sy jong atlete kan oortref. Sy advertensie -agentskap het die slagspreuk “Hvoom with Hvam - geskep en moenie vrees nie!” Tydskrifadvertensies bevat 'n foto van Hvam wat deur 'n gelandesprung spring, vergesel van 'n geselsige teks waarin Hvam in Noors-Engels sintaksis verduidelik hoe sy binding werk. 'Miskien weet u nie van vrystellingsbindings nie', lui een advertensie. 'Miskien is u in 'n hospitaal met 'n gebreekte been. . . . Laat ek u vertel hoe die Hvam toe -vrystelling werk. Dit maak nooit los terwyl jy ski nie, want hierdie deel het twee afgeronde penne wat in die voetstukke pas en dit kan nie draai nie, want hierdie deel word opwaarts gestoot. Solank dit stoot, kan dit nie draai nie. As u ski, stoot u stewelsool altyd op die teenlip. Hoe harder jy kantel, hoe harder word jou toon vasgesluit. Nou. As jy sleg word, kan jou voet draai. Jou voet draai sywaarts, daar is nie veel druk nie. Die toon draai, en jou skoene kan sonder besering verdraai word. Miskien dink jy dat ek jou 'n leuen sou vertel. As jy so dink, is ek jammer vir jou. Ek sou oor niks lieg nie. Veral sou ek nie lieg oor ski nie, want ski is waaroor my hele lewe gaan. ”

Teen 1953, met die wydverspreide aanvaarding van 'veiligheids' -bindings, het dit onrusbarend duidelik geword dat die beseringsyfer nie verbeter nie. Die Stowe -ski -patrollie het berig dat hulle steeds ongeveer vier beenbreuke per 1000 ski -dae vervoer, en het die skuld daarvoor geplaas dat daar geen standaardmetode was om losbindings aan te pas en te toets nie. In Frankryk, in 1954, bied Jean Beyl 'n skadeloosstelling van $ 71 aan vir enige gebreekte been wat hy met 'n fabrieksgemonteerde Look opgedoen het en slegs twee keer uitbetaal op grond van 1 180 skiërs. Ski Magazine beraam dat dit 'n beseringsyfer van 0,17 per 1000 skiërsdae beloop, wat vermoedelik beteken dat u 24 keer veiliger sou ski op 'n behoorlik aangepaste voorkoms as op die gemiddelde New Englander se ontspanningsuitrusting. Earl Miller reageer die volgende winter deur sy eie $ 100 -premie aan te bied vir gebreekte bene op Hanson -bindings in sy eie Provo -winkel.

Laat tene vryloop

Teen die laat vyftigerjare het Amerikaanse ski -winkels verkoopskoene verkoop onder ongeveer 35 handelsname, waaronder A & ampT, ABC, Alta, Aspen, Attenhofer, Cervin, Cober, Cubco, Cortina, Dovre, Eckel, Evernew, Geze, Gresvig, Goodman, Gripon , Kenny K, Krystal, Look, Marker, Meergans, Miller, Northland, OU, P & ampM, Persenico, Ramy, Ski-Flete, Ski Free, Spearhead, Stowe Flexible, Suwe, Top, Tyrolia, US Star en Werner. Hvam het sy pryse laag gehou - in 1961, toe die Look Nevada -teen teen $ 12,50 verkoop word, het Hvam se Standard -model in chroom $ 6,95 verkoop (alhoewel daar 'n Deluxe -model in goud was vir $ 12,50). Hvam het sy hakvrystellingskabel vir $ 4,50 bekendgestel, toe die Look -kabel vir $ 7,50 verkoop word.

Behalwe Cubco en Miller, het niemand anders nog uitgevind hoe om die hakskabel uit te skakel nie, in wese onveranderd van Reuge se Kandahar -ontwerp van 1932. Omdat kabelhakke algemeen was, was dit algemeen om gemengde stelsels te sien: u kan 'n Hvam -toon met 'n Salomon Lift -kabel monteer, of 'n Look -toe met 'n Marker -draaitafel. Reeds in 1965 het Marker nog steeds 'n nie-losgemaakte kantdraai-draaitafelhak verkoop. Op hierdie stadium het Look die losbare Grand Prix-hak bekendgestel, gebaseer op dieselfde beginsel van hoë elastisiteit as die Nevada-teen-eenheid.

Hvam se binding was reeds verouderd, en hoewel Cubco se stelsel doeltreffend gewerk het, is dit met minagting deur kundiges beskou wat die vrystelling van die teenoorgestelde wantroue nie vertrou het nie.

In 1961 stel mededingers Earl Miller en Mitch Cubberley die eerste ski -remme bekend, wat die 'veiligheids' -band uitskakel en daarmee snitte en snye as gevolg van windmeulski's. Skigebiede sal ski -remme nie aanvaar nie, totdat die groot Europese handelsmerke dit in 1976 aangeneem het.

Aan die kant van die wedrenne beweeg die momentum geleidelik ten gunste van die Europese fabrieke, wat toegang tot die voorste renjaers gehad het. Stein Eriksen het Marker byvoorbeeld onderskryf, en in 1960 wen Jean Vuarnet en Roger Staub goue medaljes tydens die Olimpiese Spele in Squaw Valley met behulp van die Look Nevada I toe. Look het nog 'n promosie -hupstoot gekry toe Karl Schranz en Egon Zimmermann van Marker oorskakel.

Vuurpylwetenskap

Die mark vir ski -binding was op die punt om te verander. In 1961 het 'n regte vuurpylwetenskaplike met die naam Robert Lusser sy achillespees gebars terwyl hy sy eie kabelbindings in sy hotelkamer by Saas-Fee getoets het. Lusser, 'n kampioen -aërobatiese vlieënier en ontwerper van ligte vliegtuie Klemm, het tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog Duitse vegters vir Messerschmitt en Heinkel ontwerp. By Heinkel was hy verantwoordelik vir die eerste straaljagter wat ooit gevlieg het, en het die Fieseler V-1 'gonsbom' geskep. Die Amerikaanse vloot het hom in 1948 gegryp om aan vroeë kruisraketten te werk by Point Mugu, Kalifornië, en hy het 'n paar werk gedoen vir Wernher von Braun aan die Redstone -missielprojek, voordat hy in 1957 na Duitsland en Messerschmitt teruggekeer het.

Lusser het 'n deeglike ingenieursontleding gedoen van die probleem met bindende vrystelling en het drie belangrike innovasies gekry: 'n teflon-anti-wrywingskussing onder die stewels, 'n hakvrystellingstelsel wat gebaseer is op 'n hakbeker, 'n nok en 'n vaste spanveer, en 'n eenvoudige teen -eenheid wat die boonste radius van die boot toe vasgryp in plaas van die teenflens. Hierdie laaste innovasie het 'n lang slag met 'n hoë elastisiteit gebied voor die vrylating, wat beteken dat die binding na die middel kan terugkeer sonder om los te kom-selfs by relatief lae veerspannings. Dit was 'n lelike toon, gebou soos 'n Cubco-veer wat sywaarts gedraai is en gekoppel is aan 'n paar staaldraadstutgrijpers. Maar dit het gewerk.

Lusser het hierdie uitvindings gepatenteer, en die groot bindende ondernemings het sy innovasies opgetel. By Look het Jean Beyl die tweedraaiende Nevada-toon herontwerp. Die resultaat, in 1962, was die vernuftige enkel-draai Look Nevada II, met sy lang toonvlerke wat die boonste toon van die stewel vasgryp, eerder as die enigste flens. This patented design remained the basis of Look toe units for the next 40 years.

In 1963 Lusser quit his job at Messerschmitt and launched the Lusser binding company. He died in 1969, and the brand died with him. But he had started the ball rolling on his three key breakthroughs.

During the Sixties, Mitch Cubberley and Gordon Lipe proved the importance of reducing boot-ski friction, and, in parallel with Lusser, created the first anti-friction devices. Personal injury attorneys began paying closer attention to ski binding design. Cubberley had the test results to prove that removing the leather boot sole from the release system improved safety, and by the mid-Sixties Cubco was selling more than 200,000 sets of bindings annually. Cubco was the binding of choice for rental operators.

With his dated design, Hvam had a problem. In 1966, his insurers wanted a $160,000 liability premium. He would have had to sell nearly 120,000 sets of toes just to pay for insurance, and he had nowhere near that kind of market share.

Standardized Sole

Technology was advancing on other fronts. Look had introduced the Nevada II toe, following Lusser’s idea of gripping the upper radius of the boot toe. The company aggressively, and correctly, promoted the value of high elasticity and shock absorption, and the message got through. As racers talked about “Markering out” of the Simplex, European factories redesigned their toes for longer travel, producing products like the Marker M4 and Geze Jet Set on Lusser’s patents.

In 1967 Tyrolia introduced the Clix Rocket step-in heel unit, and Salomon responded with a heel unit that could be cocked open for step-in by closing its cover latch. By 1970, Kurt von Besser, Rudi Gertsch and Dr. Richard Spademan introduced new variations on the plate binding, just as plastic boots offered the promise of a standardized boot sole, which would eliminate the need for notched toes and screwed-on steel plates. It was clear that to stay competitive, a ski binding company needed deep pockets for research and testing.

On the commercial side, the big European factories found sizeable American corporations to distribute their products in North America. Beconta commanded almost 30 percent of the market for Look, while Garcia Corp. – distributor of Fischer and Rossignol – hawked Marker even more successfully. Salomon found a home at A&T. Tyrolia was purchased by AMF. Tiny independent companies like Hvam, Cubco and Miller began to look irrelevant in the great merchandising wars. Even smaller start-ups – Americana, Moog, Allsop – muddied the waters and cut into market share.

Saf-Ski R.I.P.

In 1972, Hvam retired and the Saf-Ski binding disappeared for good. Hvam died in 1996 at the age of 93. Hvam never fully solved the problem of pre-release, or heel release, or boot sole flex, but he defined the issues and led the way.

Cubco, armed with brilliant reviews from the testing labs, soldiered on. Mitch Cubberley was determined to build a safe, effective and cheap binding, and seemed equally determined to keep it ugly. With the universal adoption of standard plastic boot soles, his binding lost its performance advantage. Thanks largely to his own efforts in partnership with Gordon Lipe to eliminate boot-to-ski friction, industry-wide injury rates fell 75 percent to about 2.5 sled rides per thousand skier days, and most of those injuries were upper-body fractures entirely unrelated to ski binding issues.

Moreover, Cubberley was amazingly generous about his own designs. When other companies infringed on his patents-the original Gertsch plate and the Rosemount toe unit are egregious examples-he declined to protect his rights. Cubco, a victim of its own technological leadership, slid into commercial obscurity.

Cubberley, more than anyone the man responsible for destroying the sport’s broken-leg image in North America, died in 1977 at age 62. Cubco folded two years later. But the truth is, if you have a late-model Cubco binding, complete with its standard Lipe Slider, it still works pretty well.

By 1976, when Look’s single-pivot patent expired, Salomon was ready to adopt its long-elasticity design with the first of the 747 bindings.

Thanks largely to the work of Jean Beyl, Robert Lusser, Mitch Cubberley and Gordon Lipe, today’s bindings – with long-elasticity toe and heel units, anti-friction devices, and standardized boot soles – have reduced lower leg injuries to an insignificant level, while largely eliminating pre-release. The complex issue of knee injuries is another matter, which we may well revisit in these pages in years to come – if new binding designs succcessfully address it, and new pioneers step up to the plate.

Photos: Top of page, Cubco step-in middle of page, Robert Lusser's low-friction, high-elasticity ski binding.


Why Footbinding Persisted in China for a Millennium

For the past year  I have been working with Britain’s BBC television to make a documentary series on the history of women. In the latest round of filming there was an incident that haunts me. It took place during a segment on the social changes that affected Chinese women in the late 13th century.

Verwante lesings

Every Step a Lotus: Shoes for Bound Feet

Cinderella's Sisters: A Revisionist History of Footbinding

These changes can be illustrated by the practice of female foot-binding. Some early evidence for it comes from the tomb of Lady Huang Sheng, the wife of an imperial clansman, who died in 1243. Archaeologists discovered tiny, misshapen feet that had been wrapped in gauze and placed inside specially shaped “lotus shoes.” For one of my pieces on camera, I balanced a pair of embroidered doll shoes in the palm of my hand, as I talked about Lady Huang and the origins of foot-binding. When it was over, I turned to the museum curator who had given me the shoes and made some comment about the silliness of using toy shoes. This was when I was informed that I had been holding the real thing. The miniature “doll” shoes had in fact been worn by a human. The shock of discovery was like being doused with a bucket of freezing water.

Foot-binding is said to have been inspired by a tenth-century court dancer named Yao Niang who bound her feet into the shape of a new moon. She entranced Emperor Li Yu by dancing on her toes inside a six-foot golden lotus festooned with ribbons and precious stones. In addition to altering the shape of the foot, the practice also produced a particular sort of gait that relied on the thigh and buttock muscles for support. From the start, foot-binding was imbued with erotic overtones. Gradually, other court ladies—with money, time and a void to fill—took up foot-binding, making it a status symbol among the elite.

A small foot in China, no different from a tiny waist in Victorian England, represented the height of female refinement. For families with marriageable daughters, foot size translated into its own form of currency and a means of achieving upward mobility. The most desirable bride possessed a three-inch foot, known as a “golden lotus.” It was respectable to have four-inch feet—a silver lotus—but feet five inches or longer were dismissed as iron lotuses. The marriage prospects for such a girl were dim indeed.

Lui Shui Ying (right) had her feet bound in the 1930s, after the custom fell out of favor. (Jo Farrell ) The author holds a pair of tiny “lotus shoes” common before the practice was banned. (Andrew Lichtenstein) Photographer Jo Farrell set out to document some of the last living women in rural China with bound feet for her series, “Living History.” Among them: Zhang Yun Ying, 88. (Jo Farrell ) “In the past year alone, three of the women I have been documenting have died,” Farrell noted on a Kickstarter page she posted last year to raise funds for her project. (Jo Farrell ) “I feel it is now imperative to focus on recording their lives before it is too late,” Farrell wrote. Ping Yao Lady (above) was photographed at age 107. ( Jo Farrell) The aim of her project, Farrell says, “is to capture and celebrate a piece of history that is currently rarely shown and will soon be lost forever.” (Above: Zhang Yun Ying, 88.) ( Jo Farrell) Farrell worked with a local translator to get the women (above: Zhang Yun Ying and Ping Yao Lady) to tell their stories. (Jo Farrell ) The women in Farrell’s photos are “peasant farmers working off the land in rural areas away from City life depicted so often in academia on foot binding,” she writes. (Jo Farrell ) Filming a documentary series on the history of women, Foreman at first believed she was holding doll shoes—she was stunned to learn that they had in fact been worn by a human. (Andrew Lichtenstein) Author Amanda Foreman compares a pair of the “lotus shoes” with her hand. (Andrew Lichtenstein)

As I held the lotus shoes in my hand, it was horrifying to realize that every aspect of women’s beauty was intimately bound up with pain. Placed side by side, the shoes were the length of my iPhone and less than a half-inch wider. My index finger was bigger than the “toe” of the shoe. It was obvious why the process had to begin in childhood when a girl was 5 or 6.

First, her feet were plunged into hot water and her toenails clipped short. Then the feet were massaged and oiled before all the toes, except the big toes, were broken and bound flat against the sole, making a triangle shape. Next, her arch was strained as the foot was bent double. Finally, the feet were bound in place using a silk strip measuring ten feet long and two inches wide. These wrappings were briefly removed every two days to prevent blood and pus from infecting the foot. Sometimes “excess” flesh was cut away or encouraged to rot. The girls were forced to walk long distances in order to hasten the breaking of their arches. Over time the wrappings became tighter and the shoes smaller as the heel and sole were crushed together. After two years the process was complete, creating a deep cleft that could hold a coin in place. Once a foot had been crushed and bound, the shape could not be reversed without a woman undergoing the same pain all over again.

As the practice of foot-binding makes brutally clear, social forces in China then subjugated women. And the impact can be appreciated by considering three of China’s greatest female figures: the politician Shangguan Wan’er (664-710), the poet Li Qing-zhao (1084-c.1151) and the warrior Liang Hongyu (c.1100-1135). All three women lived before foot-binding became the norm. They had distinguished themselves in their own right—not as voices behind the throne, or muses to inspire others, but as self-directed agents. Though none is well known in the West, the women are household names in China.

Shangguan began her life under unfortunate circumstances. She was born the year that her grandfather, the chancellor to Emperor Gaozong, was implicated in a political conspiracy against the emperor’s powerful wife, Empress Wu Zetian. After the plot was exposed, the irate empress had the male members of the Shangguan family executed and all the female members enslaved. Nevertheless, after being informed of the 14-year-old Shangguan Wan’er’s exceptional brilliance as a poet and scribe, the empress promptly employed the girl as her personal secretary. Thus began an extraordinary 27-year relationship between China’s only female emperor and the woman whose family she had destroyed. 

Wu eventually promoted Shangguan from cultural minister to chief minister, giving her charge of drafting the imperial edicts and decrees. The position was as dangerous as it had been during her grandfather’s time. On one occasion the empress signed her death warrant only to have the punishment commuted at the last minute to facial disfigurement. Shangguan survived the empress’s downfall in 705, but not the political turmoil that followed. She could not help becoming embroiled in the surviving progeny’s plots and counterplots for the throne. In 710 she was persuaded or forced to draft a fake document that acceded power to the Dowager Empress Wei. During the bloody clashes that erupted between the factions, Shangguan was dragged from her house and beheaded.

A later emperor had her poetry collected and recorded for posterity. Many of her poems had been written at imperial command to commemorate a particular state occasion. But she also contributed to the development of the “estate poem,” a form of poetry that celebrates the courtier who willingly chooses the simple, pastoral life. 

Shangguan is considered by some scholars to be one of the forebears of the High Tang, a golden age in Chinese poetry. Nevertheless, her work pales in significance compared with the poems of Li Qingzhao, whose surviving relics are kept in a museum in her hometown of Jinan—the “City of Springs”—in Shandong province.

Li lived during one of the more chaotic times of the Song era, when the country was divided into northern China under the Jin dynasty and southern China under the Song. Her husband was a mid-ranking official in the Song government. They shared an intense passion for art and poetry and were avid collectors of ancient texts. Li was in her 40s when her husband died, consigning her to an increasingly fraught and penurious widowhood that lasted for another two decades. At one point she made a disastrous marriage to a man whom she divorced after a few months. An exponent of ci poetry—lyric verse written to popular tunes, Li poured out her feelings about her husband, her widowhood and her subsequent unhappiness. She eventually settled in Lin’an, the capital of the southern Song.

Li’s later poems became increasingly morose and despairing. But her earlier works are full of joie de vivre and erotic desire. Like this one attributed to her:

. I finish tuning the pipes
face the floral mirror
thinly dressed
crimson silken shift
translucent
over icelike flesh
lustrous
in snowpale cream
glistening scented oils
and laugh
to my sweet friend
tonight
you are within
my silken curtains
your pillow, your mat
will grow cold.

Literary critics in later dynasties struggled to reconcile the woman with the poetry, finding her remarriage and subsequent divorce an affront to Neo-Confucian morals. Ironically, between Li and her near-contemporary Liang Hongyu, the former was regarded as the more transgressive. Liang was an ex-courtesan who had followed her soldier-husband from camp to camp. Already beyond the pale of respectability, she was not subjected to the usual censure reserved for women who stepped beyond the nei —the female sphere of domestic skills and household management—to enter the wei , the so-called male realm of literary learning and public service.

Liang grew up at a military base commanded by her father. Her education included military drills and learning the martial arts. In 1121, she met her husband, a junior officer named Han Shizhong. With her assistance he rose to become a general, and together they formed a unique military partnership, defending northern and central China against incursions by the Jurchen confederation known as the Jin kingdom.

In 1127, Jin forces captured the Song capital at Bianjing, forcing the Chinese to establish a new capital in the southern part of the country. The defeat almost led to a coup d’état, but Liang and her husband were among the military commanders who sided with the beleaguered regime. She was awarded the title “Lady Defender” for her bravery. Three years later, Liang achieved immortality for her part in a naval engagement on the Yangtze River known as the Battle of Huangtiandang. Using a combination of drums and flags, she was able to signal the position of the Jin fleet to her husband. The general cornered the fleet and held it for 48 days.

Liang and Han lie buried together in a tomb at the foot of Lingyan Mountain. Her reputation as a national heroine remained such that her biography was included in the 16th-century Sketch of a Model for Women by Lady Wang, one of the four books that became the standard Confucian classics texts for women’s education.  

Though it may not seem obvious, the reasons that the Neo-Confucians classed Liang as laudable, but not Shangguan or Li, were part of the same societal impulses that led to the widespread acceptance of foot-binding. First and foremost, Liang’s story demonstrated her unshakable devotion to her father, then to her husband, and through him to the Song state. As such, Liang fulfilled her duty of obedience to the proper (male) order of society.

The Song dynasty was a time of tremendous economic growth, but also great social insecurity. In contrast to medieval Europe, under the Song emperors, class status was no longer something inherited but earned through open competition. The old Chinese aristocratic families found themselves displaced by a meritocratic class called the literati. Entrance was gained via a rigorous set of civil service exams that measured mastery of the Confucian canon. Not surprisingly, as intellectual prowess came to be valued more highly than brute strength, cultural attitudes regarding masculine and feminine norms shifted toward more rarefied ideals.

Foot-binding, which started out as a fashionable impulse, became an expression of Han identity after the Mongols invaded China in 1279. The fact that it was only performed by Chinese women turned the practice into a kind of shorthand for ethnic pride. Periodic attempts to ban it, as the Manchus tried in the 17th century, were never about foot-binding itself but what it symbolized. To the Chinese, the practice was daily proof of their cultural superiority to the uncouth barbarians who ruled them. It became, like Confucianism, another point of difference between the Han and the rest of the world. Ironically, although Confucian scholars had originally condemned foot-binding as frivolous, a woman’s adherence to both became conflated as a single act.

Earlier forms of Confucianism had stressed filial piety, duty and learning. The form that developed during the Song era, Neo-Confucianism, was the closest China had to a state religion. It stressed the indivisibility of social harmony, moral orthodoxy and ritualized behavior. For women, Neo-Confucianism placed extra emphasis on chastity, obedience and diligence. A good wife should have no desire other than to serve her husband, no ambition other than to produce a son, and no interest beyond subjugating herself to her husband’s family—meaning, among other things, she must never remarry if widowed. Every Confucian primer on moral female behavior included examples of women who were prepared to die or suffer mutilation to prove their commitment to the “Way of the Sages.” The act of foot-binding—the pain involved and the physical limitations it created—became a woman’s daily demonstration of her own commitment to Confucian values.

The truth, no matter how unpalatable, is that foot-binding was experienced, perpetuated and administered by women. Though utterly rejected in China now—the last shoe factory making lotus shoes closed in 1999—it survived for a thousand years in part because of women’s emotional investment in the practice. The lotus shoe is a reminder that the history of women did not follow a straight line from misery to progress, nor is it merely a scroll of patriarchy writ large. Shangguan, Li and Liang had few peers in Europe in their own time. But with the advent of foot-binding, their spiritual descendants were in the West. Meanwhile, for the next 1,000 years, Chinese women directed their energies and talents toward achieving a three-inch version of physical perfection.     

About Amanda Foreman

Amanda Foreman is the award-winning author of Georgiana: Duchess of Devonshire en A World on Fire: Britain's Crucial Role in the American Civil War. Her next book The World Made by Women: A History of Women from the Age of Cleopatra to the Era of Thatcher, is slated for publication by Random House (US) and Allen Lane (UK) in 2015.


Inhoud

Though dragons were formidable opponents during the Scouring, mankind had strength in both numbers and, compared to dragons, the ability to reproduce efficiently. Eventually the war began to go in favor of humanity, the warring dragon tribes appealed to the Divine Dragons, asking them for one of their own to become a Demon Dragon, which could produce artificial War Dragons to increase their dragons' numbers and turn the tide of war. ΐ] The Divine Dragons, however, regarded the idea of War Dragons to be an abomination against nature and refused. Α] The Divine Dragons then vanished from history. The Divine Dragons are implied to have escaped to Arcadia, of which there are still some residing there by the time of The Binding Blade, such as Fae, Β] and Fire Emblem: The Blazing Blade depicts various dragon tribes, an Ice Dragon in particular, living in the village. Γ ]

Idunn, however, stayed behind because she feared the Divine Dragons would eventually get into conflict with the other dragons. Δ] She was captured by the warring dragon tribes and turned into a Demon Dragon, but she still refused to create the War Dragons. Because of her refusal, the dragons destroyed her soul in order to make her follow their commands. Ε] The War Dragons were born, and the war began to shift in favor of the dragons. However, when defeat was looming over humanity, they combined their greatest technology and magic to forge the Legendary Weapons, designed to battle dragons. The weapons were given to the Eight Legends, who used their power to fight Idunn's War Dragons. Mankind also used the calamity of Ending Winter, caused by the great power of the dragons and Legendary Weapons, to its benefit, leading to Idunn's defeat at the hands of Hartmut the Champion. The remaining dragons were either killed or banished to another universe lying beyond a magical portal located on Valor Isle.

Instead of killing Idunn, however, Hartmut took pity on her and sealed her away with the Binding Blade. She remained bound for nearly a thousand years until King Zephiel of Bern released the seal. Having lost his faith in humanity due to years of abuse and an assassination attempt by his father, King Desmond, Zephiel wished to crush the world of humans and give it to the dragons, who he believed should have won the Scouring. Jahn, one of the last, if not die last, members of the Fire Dragon clan remaining in Elibe, approached Zephiel after Idunn's release and assisted him in realizing his goal.

Under Zephiel's and Jahn's command, Bern moved to conquer the entirety of Elibe, but was stopped by the combined forces of Lycia and Etruria led by General Roy of Pherae. After Roy's defeat of Zephiel, if the player collected all the Legendary Weapons and the Binding Blade is intact, Roy will track down Jahn and Idunn. After Jahn is defeated, Roy faces Idunn, who has continued to follow her dead master's order to produce War Dragons to conquer the world. If the player defeats Idunn using the Binding Blade and Fae is still alive, the true ending will occur and Idunn will be spared by Roy (if not, Idunn will be killed by the falling rubble in the collapsing temple). She is brought to Arcadia, where the Divine Dragons restore her soul, though they are unsure as to whether she will ever return to normal, having been separated from it for so long. In the last scene of the Epilogue, Idunn is seen laughing with Fae, giving hope that she would eventually return to her previous self.

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are the stat's minimum and maximum possible values respectively. Ζ]


A Guide to Ancient Magic

Call it a happy accident: When a group of Serbian archaeologists recently uncovered a cache of 2,000-year-old skeletons, they unearthed a set of mysterious scrolls covered with Aramaic curses, too. As Reuters reports, the tiny scrolls were contained in what are thought to be ancient amulets and are covered with spells used in “binding magic” rituals of yore.

While the archaeologists work to decipher the scrolls (a process that could never be complete), why not take a moment to catch up on what historians already know about ancient magical rituals?

Spells were everything 

In ancient “binding magic,” it was all about the spells. Unlike modern-day magical phrases like, say, "bippity boppity boo," practitioners of magic in ancient Greek and Rome used spells to “bind” people up to different outcomes in sporting events, business, and personal affairs related to love and even revenge.

As Greek and Roman magic expert Derek Collins writes, binding spells had known formulas and named involved parties, like gods and people, and then connected them to actions or results. You could use a binding spell to invoke an upcoming athletic victory or ensure your happy marriage to a new partner—and to do so, you’d use powerful strings of words passed on by magicians or ordinary people.

Amulets were a must-have magical fashion accessory

Spells weren’t just said in the ancient world—they were written down. And like the objects found in Syria, the spells were often carried around with a person until they came to pass. Amulets designed to carry spells became a must-have fashion accessory and are regularly found in Ancient Greek and Roman grave sites and digs.

Though other ancient cultures, like that of Ancient Egypt, favored amulets with symbolism, Ancient Greek and Roman amulets were designed to carry spells, themselves. In 2011, archaeologists uncovered an amulet in Cyprus that was engraved with a palindromic spell, and in 2008, Swiss archaeologists found a gold scroll in a silver amulet capsule thought to have belonged to an ancient Roman child. Amulets may have looked decorative, but their contents felt like life and death to believers, who paid magicians to give them scrolls and talismans that put their intentions into physical form.

Curses and revenge were very much a thing

One of the more charmingly bitter traditions of ancient Greece and Rome were “curse tablets”—spells written on lead, wax or stone that laid out the ways in which people had been wronged. Think of curse tablets as the takedowns of the ancient world: If someone disrespected or harmed you, you could head to your local magician and pay to curse them. People cursed people who hurt their family members, but they also cursed them when they committed crimes or even entered into court cases against them. Large caches of curse tablets have been found in Roman digs in the modern-day United Kingdom.

One such tablet invokes the god Mercury to bring down a curse on Varianus, Peregrina and Sabinianus, whom the curser thought had brought harm on their animal. “I ask that you drive them to the greatest death, and do not allow them health or sleep unless they redeem from you what they have administered to me,” cursed the aggrieved Docilinus. Ouch.

(UCLA/Public Domain)

And then there were the curse dolls 

Of course, if someone dissed you, you also had the option of creating a tiny effigy to do harm to. Though sometimes compared to modern-day voodoo dolls, scholars still aren’t entirely sure what the tiny figurines used in binding magic in ancient Greece and Rome were for. What they do know is that the word “binding” was taken literally when it comes to these figures: They have been found in tiny coffins with bound hands and feet or mutilated bodies and seem to have been molded along with binding spells.

Not everyone in ancient Greece and Rome was into magic 

The descriptions above might make you think that everyone in the ancient world was into binding magic. But that wasn’t true: Historians now believe that magic was quite separate from ancient religion. Though both involved the gods, magic involved manipulating gods whereas other rituals relied on supplication and offerings in the hopes that the gods might favor the person doing the asking.

Anti-magic legislation existed in both ancient Greece and ancient Rome, even before the days of Christianity, but often such laws only covered magic that actually killed, as when a stepmother was sued for administering a fatal “love charm” to her stepson’s mistress. Lesson learned: If you only use your ancient curses, spells and charms to inflict mild harm instead of death, you should be okay. Now where did that curse tablet go?


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