Die storie

Shenandoah Valley -veldtogte

Shenandoah Valley -veldtogte


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Tydens die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog (1861-65) het Virginia se Shenandoah-vallei 'n reeks militêre botsings beleef toe unie- en konfederale magte probeer om beheer oor die gebied te verkry. In die lente van 1862 het die Konfederale Generaal Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson sy manne meer as 650 myl gelei op 'n veldtog wat Washington, DC bedreig het, en die Unie -magte afgewyk het van 'n beplande aanval op Richmond, Virginia. In 1864 begin vakbondgeneraal Philip Sheridan met 'n veldtog wat daarop gemik was om die Konfederale Weermag te ontneem van lewensbelangrike natuurlike hulpbronne en voorrade. Sheridan het 'n reeks gevegte gewen wat die beheer van die vallei weg van die Konfederate afgeskud het, hoewel sporadiese gevegte tot die einde van die oorlog voortgeduur het.

Shenandoah Valley-veldtogte, (Julie 1861-Maart 1865), tydens die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog, belangrike militêre veldtogte in 'n stryd van vier jaar om beheer oor die strategiese Shenandoah Valley in Virginia, wat noord en suid tussen die Blue Ridge en die Alleghenyberge loop . Die Suide het die vervoervoordele van die vallei so effektief gebruik dat dit dikwels die 'vallei van vernedering' vir die Noorde geword het. Gedurende die grootste deel van die oorlog kon die Konfederale leërs noordwaarts deur die vallei en in die rigting van Washington, DC beweeg, terwyl die leërs van die Unie wat na die suide toe vorder, verder van Richmond, die Konfederale hoofstad, weggestoot is. Toe 'n suidelike leër die Potomac by sy samevloeiing met die Shenandoah -rivier oorsteek, het dit oor die Baltimore- en Ohio -spoorweg gestrek en was dit slegs 100 kilometer noordwes van Washington. Daarom is die teenwoordigheid van 'n Konfederale weermag in die noordelike deel van die Shenandoah -vallei dikwels as 'n voldoende bedreiging beskou om die troepe van die Unie terug te roep uit veldtogte elders om die veiligheid van die hoofstad te verseker. Laat in die oorlog neem die uniemagte uiteindelik onbetwiste beheer oor die streek.

Gedurende die eerste paar jaar van die oorlog was die vallei die arena vir 'n reeks konfederale aanvalle en maneuvers onder generaals soos P.G.T. Beauregard, Thomas ("Stonewall") Jackson, Richard S. Ewell en Wade Hampton. Van Maart tot Junie 1862 het Jackson sy beroemde 'voetkavallerie' gelei op 'n veldtog wat meer as 1050 km (1050 km) gewissel het en vyf gevegte gevoer het (Kernstown, 23 Maart; Front Royal, 23 Mei; Winchester, 25 Mei; Cross Keys , 8 Junie; Port Republic, 9 Junie) in 'n briljante aksie wat veel groter uniemagte neergepen en 'n voortdurende bedreiging vir Washington, DC ingehou het Behalwe dat Jackson roem verower het, het hierdie aksies duisende federale troepe weggeneem van 'n rit op Richmond; Die afleidings van Jackson het moontlik die suidelike hoofstad van vroeë gevangenskap gered.

Die vallei het nog 'n intense tydperk van veldtogte laat in die oorlog aangebied, toe die unie -generaal Ulysses S. Grant in Augustus 1864 generaal Philip H. Sheridan gestuur het om die Shenandoah eens en vir altyd te verwyder, deels om die Federale van 'n voortdurende bedreiging ontslae te raak en deels om ontken die suide die vallei se ryk landbouprodukte. Soos Jackson voor hom, het Sheridan se aggressiewe en mobiele veldtog hom bekend gemaak. Van einde September tot einde Oktober 1864 het Sheridan se magte drie groot gevegte gewen: die Derde Slag van Winchester (19 September), die Slag van Fishers Hill (22 September) en die Slag van Cedar Creek (19 Oktober). Hierdie oorwinnings het die Federale die oorhand gegee in die vallei wat hulle nooit prysgegee het nie. Alhoewel Sheridan se veldtog in wese verby was, moes die suidelike posisie eers uitgeskakel word totdat 'n kavaleriedivisie onder leiding van generaal George Custer die troepe van generaal Jubal Early op Waynesboro op 2 Maart 1865 verslaan het. 'N Maand later het die Konfederasie in duie gestort en Robert E. Lee het oorgegee. die suide se laaste veldleër.


Die veldtogte

Ander 01 Maart 1862 & mdash 02 Maart 1865 Uitkoms: Onoortuigend

Van Stonewall Jackson se Vallei -veldtog van 1862, wat gehelp het om die jong Konfederasie te red, tot Phillip Sheridan se Shenandoah -veldtog van 1864, wat gehelp het om sy ondergang te verseël, was die Shenandoah -vallei die plek vir sommige van die belangrikste en onvergeetlike veldtogte van die Amerikaanse Burgeroorlog.

In die lente van 1862, met die konfederale voorspoed wat op elke punt val, het Jackson een van die briljantste veldtogte in die militêre geskiedenis gevoer, 'n vinnige prestasie van gevegte, optogte, misleiding, teenmars en vrymoedigheid wat sy teenstanders en vakbondleiers geteister het. duisende Unie -troepe uit die federale veldtog om Richmond in te neem, en het nuwe hoop en entoesiasme vir die Konfederale saak gewek.

In 1863 gebruik Robert E. Lee die unieke geografie en posisie van die Shenandoah -vallei as 'n 'invallingsweg' tydens sy opgang noord - en as 'n veilige toevlug toe hy na sy suide terugtrek na sy duur nederlaag in Pennsylvania. In 1864 bereik die oorlog in die vallei 'n gewelddadige crescendo, met 'n wipplankreeks veldtogte wat op en af ​​in die landskap woed.

In die Lynchburg -veldtog het elke kant oorwinnings verhandel en die eerste beweeg na 'n groter vernietigingsoorlog. Aangesien sy lewensbelangrike toevoerlyne bedreig is, het 'n reeds onderbemande Lee gedobbel deur byna 'n derde van sy leër onder genl Jubal Early te stuur om die federale bedreiging af te weer. Tydens sy Maryland -veldtog Early het die Unie -magte nie net uit die vallei gedryf nie, maar hy en sy manne het na die poorte van Washington self gevorder. Uiteindelik wend desperate federale leiers hulle tot 'n nuwe bevelvoerder, genl. Philip H. Sheridan.

In die herfs van 1864 het Sheridan 'n reeks brandende nederlae gelewer, die Konfederale hoop verbrysel - en bygedra tot die herverkiesing van Abraham Lincoln in November 1864. Te midde van die veldtog het die federale magte ook begin met verskroeide aarde -operasies wat baie verbrand en baie verwoes het. van die landbou -oorvloed van die vallei, 'n nuwe draai na 'totale oorlog' wat bekend gestaan ​​het as The Burning.

Die Konfederasie het beheer oor die Shenandoah -vallei verloor, en Stonewall Jackson se woorde was profeties. Slegs maande later het Virginia self geval toe Lee sy leër aan Ulysses S. Grant in Appomattox oorgegee het.


Stonewall Jackson se vroeë meesterstuk – The Shenandoah Valley

Die slag van Shenandoah Valley in 1862 is een van die grootste meesterwerke uit die militêre geskiedenis.

Die Shenandoah -vallei in Virginia en in die noorde begrens deur Blue Ridge en in die suide deur die Allegheny -gebergte bied strategiese afskermings- en vervoervoordele aan die Konfederale magte, en met sy vrugbare grond en boerderygemeenskappe, het hulle voedsel voorsien tydens die Amerikaanse burgerlike Oorlog (wat van Julie 1861 tot Maart 1865 geduur het).

General Jackson ’s “Chancellorsville ” Portret, geneem op 'n plaas in Spotsylvania County op 26 April 1863, sewe dae voor sy dodelike gewond in die Slag van Chancellorsville.

Die Shenandoah-vallei word nie net onthou vir tientalle intense, bloedstortende verbintenisse tussen die vyandige Konfederale Magte wat die intimiderende Unie-magte beveg het om beheer oor die streek, die veldtogte in die Shenandoah-vallei (saam met die gebeure van First Manassas of Bull Run) bly beduidend in die opkoms van roem deur genl Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson.

Tydens die veldtog van die Shenandoah -vallei het Jackson binne 48 dae saam met 'n troep van 17.000 mans oor 'n afstand van 650 myl opgeruk, in konfrontasie met ongeveer 40.000 vakbondmagte onder leiding van generaal Nathaniel P. Banks en generaal John C. Frémont.

Sy 'voetkavalerie' het vyf gevegte gevoer (die gevegte van McDowell, Front Royal, Winchester, Cross Keys en Port Republic.), Wat gelei het tot 'n groot uitputting van die federale magte, die val van Washington DC bedreig en 'n terugtog van die ontsagwekkende Noordelike troepe uit die suidelike hoofstad, wat haar van gevangenskap red.

Jackson ’s Valley Campaign: Kernstown na McDowell. Rooi – Konfederale, Blou – Unie. Kaart deur Hal Jespersen / CC-BY-SA 3.0

Na die vyandelikhede by First Manassas wat ten gunste van die Konfederate blyk te wees, het die kans teen die konfederale magte gedraai en hulle hoog gestapel terwyl die Unie -magte met sterk vasberadenheid beweeg het, en aansienlike vordering gemaak het in die gevegte van Fort Donelson en Shiloh in die Westerse Teater, en nader Richmond (die suidelike hoofstad) van noord en suidoos.

Die troepe van generaal Nathaniel P. Banks het opgestaan ​​in 'n poging om die Shenandoah -vallei oor te neem. Stonewall Jackson het aan 'n personeellid geskryf: "As hierdie vallei verlore gaan, is Virginia verlore."

Banks in sy militêre uniform, c. 1861

Alhoewel die stryd vir die Konfederate wanordelik ongunstig gelyk het, het Jackson, wat bevel oor die konfederate troepe in die vallei geneem het, 'n doelwit van genl Joseph E. Johnston: om die vallei te beskerm en te voorkom dat die troepe van die Unie weggaan.

Dit was die sleutel as deel van die Unie -troepe onder genl. Nathaniel P. Banks is gestuur om genl. Genl. George B. McClellan se skiereilandveldtog teen Richmond aan te sluit, terwyl 'n ander deel gestuur is om genl. Genl. Irvin McDowell te help by Fredericksburg.

Dit het Bank se getalsterkte drasties laat krimp, en toe hy hierdie geleentheid aangryp, het Jackson met sy 4600 mans hulle in Kernstown aangeval. Alhoewel hulle nog steeds aansienlik in die minderheid was en 'n tegniese nederlaag beleef het, het Jackson se troepe Banks so hard getref dat hy 'n paar van sy eenhede moes terugroep wat hy na McClellan en McDowell gestuur het.

Die slag van Kernstown het ongeveer 590 slagoffers vir die Unie -magte opgelewer en ongeveer 718 slagoffers van die Konfederate met die meeste gewondes of gevangenes.

Eerste Slag van Kernstown – Hal Jespersen CC BY 3.0

Terwyl die veldtog van die McClellan -skiereiland goed aan die gang was, het Joseph E Johnston die meeste van sy troepe gestuur om te help met die beskerming van Richmond. Hy het Jackson egter versterk met 8500 man onder bevel van genl.maj Richard S. Ewell met bevele om te keer dat Banks Staunton, Virginia en die Tennessee Railroad kon verower.

Jackson het beplan dat Ewell met sy troepe na Swift Run Gap sou gaan om die flank van Banks te ontwrig terwyl hy by brig. Edward “Allegheny ” Johnson in Staunton. Hy wou dit verdedig teen die aanval van brig. Genl Robert H. Milroy, wat die leidende figuur in genl.maj. John C. Frémont se magte was.

Generaal Jackson – Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau CC BY-SA 3.0

Hierdie plan was streng om te keer dat Banks se troepe en Fremont se troepe hul kragte saamsnoer. Jackson was bekommerd dat die troepe van die konfederasie oorweldig sou word as dit toegelaat sou word.

Toe Jackson by Johnson by Staunton aansluit, het Johnson se weermag ongeveer 2800 man getel, wat Fremont se mag van ongeveer 20000 man in die gesig staar. Met die hulp van Jackson se luidrugtige weermag het hulle egter die Fremont -leër naby McDowell oorweldig en hulle meer as 30 myl in die South Branch Valley na Franklin gejaag.

Op 22 Mei het Jackson weer by Ewell aangesluit, en toe stuur hy generaal Ashby noord om Banks te laat glo dat daar 'n aanval na Strasburg kom. Maar sy eerste plan was om die kleiner eenheid van Union by Front Royal te verslaan.

Generaal Irvin McDowell (links) saam met generaal George B. McClellan

Ashby se troepe ontmoet 'n klein mag van die infanterie van die Unie wat die Unie -depot en spoorwegbasis by Buckton Station kort verdedig het. Ashby se troepe het hulle oorrompel, die depot vernietig en alle beskikbare telegraafdrade afgesny, wat die kommunikasie van Front Royal met Banks wat in Strasburg was, uitgeskakel het.

Jackson Valley Campaign – Front Royal to Port Republic – Hal Jespersen CC BY 3.0

Jackson was intussen op reis na Front Royal en het dit uiteindelik gevang. Unie -magte by Front Royal het ongeveer 773 slagoffers gely, waarvan 691 gevange geneem is. Die Konfederate het altesaam ongeveer 36 mans verloor en 'n groot hoeveelheid federale voorrade ingeneem.

Die geleentheid by Front Royal het president Lincoln genoeg gepla om ongeveer 20000 mans onder genl.maj. Irvin McDowell te herroep van hul aanvanklike besluit om by George B. McClellan aan te sluit op die skiereilandveldtog.

Front Royal Va. – Die Unie -leër onder Banks wat die stad binnegaan, 20 Mei 1862.

Na die nuus van die verlies by Front Royal, beveel Banks dat sy manne na Winchester moet terugtrek. Hierdie inligting het Jackson gekry, wat die Federals onmiddellik 'n warm jaag gegee het. Die leër van die Unie het in 14 uur ongeveer 35 myl gejaag en die Potomacrivier oorgesteek, wat Jackson se magte ontwyk het.

Die ontsnapping is hoofsaaklik te wyte aan die feit dat Ashby se kavallerie nie beskikbaar was toe dit nodig was nie. Uiteindelik het hierdie gebeurtenis gelei tot ongeveer 2000 slagoffers van die Unie -magte en 400 slagoffers van Jackson's.

Die nuus oor Jackson se uitbuiting het na Washington gegaan, waar president Abraham Lincoln bekommerd was oor die moontlikhede dat Jackson na Washington kan styg. In reaksie hierop beveel Lincoln dat Fremont van Franklin na Harrisonburg moet optrek om Jackson te betrek om die druk wat op die banke van die vyandelike magte uitgeoefen word, te verwyder.

Hy het ook die optog van McDowell na Richmond gestaak en hom beveel om saam met 20000 man na Shenandoah te marsjeer met die doel om Jackson en Ewell se magte vas te vang. Hierdie drastiese planverandering was bedoel om Jackson se weermag deur drie Unie -leërs uit drie verskillende benaderings vas te trek.

Historiese merker wat die einde aandui van genl. Stonewall Jackson se jaagtog na die Federale na die Slag van McDowell, 12 Mei 1862. Foto: Jarek Tuszyński / CC-BY-SA-3.0 & amp GDFL

Fremont sou op sy toevoerlyn uit Harrisonburg loop, terwyl Banks oor die Potomac sou terugbeweeg en Jackson sou aanval as hy in die vallei opbeweeg. McDowell se troepe sou gereed wees by Front Royal en wag vir Jackson se vlugtende troepe en hulle met Fremont in Harrisonburg verpletter.

Alhoewel die plan gesond gelyk het, was dit sinchroon met die drie verskillende generaals van die Unie. Boonop was McDowell nie heeltemal entoesiasties oor sy rol nie, en in plaas daarvan om te gaan soos beveel, stuur hy die afdeling van brig. Genl James Shields (wat pas uit Banks se weermag gekom het). Fremont sou van sy kant af Lincoln se voorskrifte ignoreer en die roete noord van Moorefield neem.

Op 30 Mei het Shields daarin geslaag om Front Royal terug te kry, en Jackson se weermag het na Winchester gegaan.

Konfederale generaal Thomas J. “Stonewall ” Jackson.

Op 2 Junie was Jackson se weermag op die vlug terwyl die leërs van die Unie vanuit verskillende hoeke nader. Generaal Ashby sterf later in 'n verlowing met Fremont se kavallerie by Chestnut Ridge. Jackson se mans het 40 myl in 36 uur opgeruk en deur die Unie -magte geglip wat deur die reën en modderige paaie belemmer is.

Om afsonderlik agter Jackson aan te jaag, was 'n groot fout van die Federale kant, en Jackson gryp hierdie geleentheid vinnig aan. Jackson het sy troepe oor die North River -brug by Port Republic beweeg, waar die riviere Noord en Suid aangesluit het om die South Fork van die Shenandoah te word. Hy het geweet dat die klein dorpie Port Republic van deurslaggewende belang was en deur die brug by die samevloeiing te vernietig, sou hy Shield en Fremont uitmekaar kon hou.

Hy het Ewell op pad na 'n rand 7 myl van Cross Keys af om Fremont te betrek. Op 8 Junie het Fremont opgeruk om Ewell te ontmoet met 'n mag van 11 500. Ewell se troepe het net 5800 getel nadat hy Richard Taylor se brigade losgemaak het om by Jackson aan te sluit.

Die slag van Cross Keys deur Edwin Forbes, 7 Junie 1862

Fremont het eerste toegeslaan, maar hy was verkeerd met Ewell se 'strategiese flank'. Terwyl hy die Konfederate by swaar bombardemente betrek het, beveel hy 5 regimente onder brig. Genl. Julius Stahel om die flank van Ewell te vind, maar tydens die uitvoering van sy bevele word Stahel ontmoet deur die Konfederale generaal Isaac R. Trimble se brigade.

Trimble se manne het 'n vurige vlug gestuur en op Stahel se manne gereën. Dit het meer as 200 slagoffers tot gevolg gehad toe die mans van Stahel haastig teruggetrek het. Toe Fremont die nuus ontvang, beveel hy sy magte om terug te trek na Keezletownweg. Ewell en sy troepe het meer grond agtervolg en herwin, maar hulle het nie aggressief betrokke geraak by die terugtrekkende unie -eenhede nie.

Intussen was Jackson deeglik verloof toe ruiters van die Unie onverwags na Port Republic stroom, waar hy sy hoofkwartier gevestig het. Hy het net nie daarin geslaag om gevang te word terwyl hy oor die North River Bridge hardloop om by sy eenhede op die kruin daarbuite aan te sluit nie. Sy mans het later weer die stad binnegegaan en die kavallerie -eenhede teruggestuur oor die Suidrivier. Die voorval het ook die teenwoordigheid van Shield se rubriek aangekondig.

Generaal Erastus B. Tyler tydens die Burgeroorlog.

Later die dag het brig. Genl. Erastus B. Tyler het twee brigades van die Unie -infanterie in 'n versonke baan gestrek wat oor die velde tussen Lewiston en die South Fork gestrek het. Hier het Tyler ses kanonne gemonteer, gereed om die hel na die konfederate te bring.

Jackson, wat nie geïntimideer is deur die dreigemente van Tyler nie, het bevel gegee. Genl Charles S. Winder oor die South Fork met die Stonewall Brigade om die Tyler -lyn aan te val, maar dit was nie suksesvol nie.

Slag van Port Republic.

Jackson beveel Ewell se magte terug na Port Republic, en hulle stroom deur die suidelike rivier. Jackson het ook beveel dat Taylor se Louisiana -brigades deur die bos moet gaan en Winder se aanval kan ontwrig.

Taylor het saam met sy manne gegaan en Winder se kanonne geflankeer. Hulle het die kanonne van agter vasgevang en teen die Unie gedraai. Terselfdertyd het Jackson se magte van Port Republic vorentoe gestroom en die Unie -magte weer op hul hakke gedryf.

Jackson en Little Sorrel, skildery deur David Bendann

Die geveg by Port Republic was die einde van Jackson se veldtog in 1862. Hy het getrek teen 'n vyand wat baie groter was en het hom konsekwent uitgemanouer. Alhoewel die vlak van ongevalle in die veldtog baie kleiner was in vergelyking met latere veldtogte, was Jackson's Valley -veldtog 'n belangrike rol in die beskerming van Richmond.

Deur hierdie hewige gevegte het hy die noordelike troepe van Richmond weggetrek en dit van die uiteindelike gevangenskap gered. Met slegs 'n mag van ongeveer 17000 man, het hy bewys dat soms net as die getalle jou te bowe gaan, jou vasberadenheid om aan te hou veg genoeg is om die stryd in jou guns te draai.


Shenandoah Valley -veldtogte - GESKIEDENIS

Vier eeue gelede, toe die hele Amerika Virginia was, was die Shenandoah-vallei, 'n vrugbare en oorvloedige natuurlike mylpad van 200 myl wat deur ou oseane gevorm is, die plek van ou legendes en eerbiedige verhale. Inheemse Indiane het 'n uiteensetting gegee van die eerste Engelsmanne wat in die 1600's op Amerikaanse bodem aangekom het met groot troppe weidingdiere en eindelose woude van Amerikaanse bome, waaronder kastaiingbome, baie 600 jaar oud en 100 voet hoog. Vir duisende jare het die Amerikaanse Indiane floreer in die oorvloedige jagveld in die Shenandoahvallei, wat later baie gewaardeerde pelse verhandel het wat in Europa gedra moes word.

So 'n oorvloed van ongerepte land en wild sou nie ongemerk verbygaan in Engeland (nog aan die einde van die 1600's), waar die jong Lord Fairfax, 'n gunsteling van Charles I en II, pas erfgenaam geword het van 5,282,000 hektaar grond in Virginia.

Die woord "Shenandoah" is van onbekende inheemse Amerikaanse oorsprong. Dit word beskryf as afgelei van die verengelsing van inheemse Amerikaners, wat lei tot woorde soos: Gerando, Gerundo, Genantua, Shendo en Sherando. Die betekenis van hierdie woorde is ook 'n vraag. Schin-han-dowi, die "River Through the Spruces", On-an-da-goa, die "River of High Mountains" of "Silver-Water, en 'n Iroquois-woord vir" Big Meadow "is almal deur Native voorgestel Amerikaanse etimoloë. Die gewildste en mees geromantiseerde oortuiging is dat dit afkomstig is van 'n inheemse Amerikaanse uitdrukking vir 'Beautiful Daughter of the Stars'. [1]

Lord Fairfax, wat in koninklike glorie in sy gemaklike woning in Engeland woon, het gehoor van 'n Duitse ontdekkingsreisiger in die 1670's wat vertel het van die Shenandoah -vallei as 'wonderlik vrugbaar met gras so hoog dat die koppe voor u bors vasgemaak kan word soos u in jou saal gaan sit. " Ander ontdekkingsreisigers in die tussenliggende jare het soortgelyke verhale teruggebring. Aangesien dit die land van Fairfax was, was hy natuurlik nuuskierig om te sien of alles wat hy gehoor het, waar was.

Terwyl Lord Fairfax nie in staat was om Engeland onmiddellik te verlaat nie (later sou hy die res van sy lewe in Virginia uitleef, byna elke dag vir ontelbare kilometers ry), het hy die perfekte ontdekkingsreisiger gevind in die persoon van Alexander Spotswood, die eerste goewerneur van Virginia . Spotswood het in 1710 waarnemende goewerneur van Virginia geword, waarna die druk op die kolonie om uit te brei skerper geword het as ooit. 'N Avonturier in sy hart en 'n groot ruiter wat die saal liefgehad het, het Spotswood min aanmoediging nodig gehad om op die versoek van Lord Fairfax te spring om na die Blue Ridge -berge te ry en te sien wat verder lê.


Shenandoah Valley -veldtogte - GESKIEDENIS

Shenandoah Valley -veldtogte van 1864

Shenandoah -vallei in die burgeroorlog

Shenandoah Valley -veldtogte van 1864

Lynchburg-veldtog (Mei-Junie 1864)

In Maart 1864 neem luitenant -generaal Ulysses S. Grant die algehele bevel oor die leërs van die Unie, oos en wes. In Mei beveel hy generaal -majoor Franz Sigel om saam te werk met die Army of the Potomac se springoffensief deur die Vallei op te styg om die Konfederale kommunikasie by Staunton en Charlottesville te ontwrig. Op 15 Mei, terwyl Grant en Lee in desperate gevegte in die Spotsylvania Court House opgesluit was, het Sigel kontak gemaak met 'n konfederale mag onder die voormalige vise -president van die Verenigde State, John C. Breckinridge, op New Market. Sigel is verslaan en vinnig teruggetrek anderkant Strasburg, en het op 16 Mei teen Cedar Creek oorgesteek. Grant het Sigel toe vervang met genl.maj David "Black Dave" Hunter, wat die taak gekry het om die Virginia Central Railroad te sny.

Intussen is die afdeling van Breckinridge oos geroep om die Army of Northern Virginia by Hanover Junction te versterk, en brig. Genl William E. "Grumble" Jones het die bevel oor die oorblywende Konfederale magte in die Vallei oorgeneem. Op 5 Junie het Hunter die kleiner Konfederale leër in Piemonte vermorsel, Jones vermoor en byna 1000 gevangenes geneem. Die ongeorganiseerde Konfederate kon niks doen om te vertraag nie Hunter se opmars na Staunton, waar versterkings vanuit Wes -Virginia by hom aangesluit het.

Van Staunton af het Hunter suidwaarts gegaan, meule, skure en openbare geboue sporadies vernietig en wydverspreide plundering deur sy troepe goedgekeur. Op 11 Junie het Hunter 'n klein kavalleriemag eenkant toe gevee en Lexington beset, waar hy die Virginia Military Institute en die huis van die voormalige goewerneur van Virginia, John Letcher, verbrand het. Hunter se suksesse het Lee genoop om Breckinridge terug te keer en die Tweede Korps van die Army of Northern Virginia onder luitenant -generaal Jubal A. Early te stuur na Lynchburg se verdediging. Om vroegtydig na die vallei te stuur, was 'n desperate besluit wat Lee se vermoë om offensiewe operasies teen Grant aan die front van Richmond-Petersburg te onderneem, beperk (sien beleg van Petersburg).

Op die middag van 17 Junie het Hunter se weermag die buitewyke van Lynchburg bereik, selfs toe Early se voorhoede per spoor vanaf Charlottesville begin aankom het. Na 'n kort, maar kwaai verbintenis, trek Hunter terug in West -Virginia. Vroeër twee dae lank agtervolg, maar keer dan terug na die vallei en begin sy troepe noordwaarts na die Potomacrivier.

1864 veldtogkaart van Shenandoah Valley

Burgeroorlog Shenandoah Valley -veldtog in Mei - Julie 1864

Shenandoah Valley -veldtogte in Mei - Augustus 1864

Shenandoah Valley -veldtogte in Mei - Augustus 1864

Early's Raid and Operations Against the B & ampO Railroad [Junie-Augustus 1864], oftewel Early's Maryland Campaign, bestaan ​​uit die volgende gevegte: Monocacy – Fort Stevens – Heaton's Crossroads – Cool Spring – Rutherford's Farm – Kernstown II – Folck's Mill – Moorefield.

Op 18 Julie het 'n unie -afdeling die Shenandoah -rivier wes van Snickers Gap oorgesteek, maar is teruggewerp tydens die slag van Cool Spring. Unie -kavallerie is die volgende dag teruggedraai by Berry's Ferry, nege kilometer verder suid. Op 20 Julie het Union Brig. William Averell se oorhoofse bevel, ondersteun deur infanterie, verhuis suid van Martinsburg op die Valley Turnpike en val die infanterie -afdeling van genl.maj. Stephen D. Ramseur op Rutherford's Farm naby Winchester aan en stuur dit. In reaksie op hierdie terugslag en samelopende dreigemente, trek Early hom terug na Fisher's Hill suid van Strasburg.

Early se onttrekking het Wright oortuig dat hy sy taak verrig het om die Konfederale indringers te verdryf. Daarom het hy die VI en XIX korps beveel om terug te keer na Alexandrië, waar hulle aan boord gaan om by die Army of the Potomac aan te sluit. Wright verlaat Crook met drie klein infanteriedivisies en 'n kavalleriedivisie by Winchester om die vallei te dek.

Volgens 'n vaste richtlijn om te verhoed dat die versterkings van die Unie Grant bereik, het Early vinnig voordeel getrek uit Wright se vertrek. Hy val op 24 Julie die bevel van Crook by Second Kernstown aan en stuur dit en druk die terugtrekkende uniemagte noukeurig vas. Toe Crook terugtrek na Harpers Ferry, stuur Early sy ruiters na Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, om hulde te bring of die stad te verbrand. Die burgers het geweier om daaraan te voldoen, en McCausland se kavallerie het die middestad van die stad verbrand as weerwraak vir Hunter se buitensporigheid in die vallei.

1864 veldtogkaart van Shenandoah Valley

Burgeroorlog in Shenandoah Valley gedurende 1864

Burgeroorlog Shenandoah Valley veldtogkaart

1864 -veldtogte in Shenandoah Valley in Augustus - Oktober 1864

Burgeroorlog in die Shenandoah -vallei, Virginia

Shenandoah Valley -veldtogte in Augustus 1864 - Maart 1865

Early se bedreiging vir Washington, die nederlaag van Crook in Second Kernstown en die verbranding van Chambersburg, het genl. Generaal Ulysses S. Grant genoodsaak om die Konfederale bedreiging in die onderste Shenandoah -vallei te beëindig. Grant het die VI en XIX Korps teruggestuur na die Vallei, versterk deur twee afdelings kavallerie, en die verskillende militêre distrikte van die streek gekonsolideer onder genl.maj. Philip H. Sheridan, wat op Augustus die bevel van die Midde Militêre Distrik by Harpers Ferry aangeneem het. 7.

Vroeër ontplooi sy magte om die benaderings na Winchester te verdedig, terwyl Sheridan sy leër, nou 50 000 sterk, via Berryville suidwaarts beweeg met die doel om die Valley Turnpike te sny. Op 11 Augustus het die Konfederale kavallerie en infanterie Union-kavallerie by Double Toll Gate teruggedraai in sporadiese, daglange gevegte, wat hierdie maneuver verhinder het.

Lee was vinnig besig om die sukses te versterk en het genl.genl. Joseph Kershaw se infanterie -afdeling van die Eerste Korps, Fitzhugh Lee se kavalleriedivisie en 'n artilleriebataljon, onder algemene bevel van generaal -luitenant Richard Anderson, gestuur om Early aan te sluit. Op 16 Augustus het Union -kavallerie hierdie mag teëgekom deur Front Royal, en in 'n skerp verlowing by Guard Hill, het brig. Genl. George A. Custer se brigade het meer as 300 Konfederate ingeneem.

Sheridan is beveel om versigtig te beweeg en 'n nederlaag te vermy, veral as Early van die Petersburg -lyn versterk word. Onseker oor die gesamentlike sterkte van Early en Anderson, het Sheridan teruggetrek na 'n verdedigingslinie naby Charles Town om die Potomacrivierkruisings en Harpers Ferry te dek. Early se magte het op 17 Augustus die agterhoede van die Unie by Abrams Creek by Winchester geloods en noordwaarts op die Valley Turnpike na Bunker Hill gedruk. Volgens Sheridan se optrede tot dusver het generaal Early hom as 'n "skugter" bevelvoerder beskou.

Op 21 Augustus het Early en Anderson 'n konvergerende aanval teen Sheridan geloods. Toe Early die hoof van die infanterie van die Unie by Cameron's Depot tref, verhuis Anderson noord van Berryville teen Sheridan se kavallerie by Summit Point. Die uitslae van die gevegte was onoortuigend, maar Sheridan het aanhou terugtrek. Die volgende dag het Early met vrymoedigheid gevorder op Charles Town en paniekbevange geraak oor 'n deel van die terugtrekkende leër van die Unie, maar laatmiddag het Sheridan teruggekeer in formidabele verskansings by Halltown, suid van Harpers Ferry, waar hy onaantasbaar was.

Vroeg daarna 'n ander inval in Maryland, in die hoop om deur hierdie maneuver die inisiatief te handhaaf. Hy het Anderson met Kershaw se afdeling verlaat voor Sheridan in Halltown, en het die res van die leër noordwaarts na Shepherdstown gerig. Op 25 Augustus het twee afdelings van Sheridan se kavalerie Early se opmars onderskep, maar die Konfederale infanterie het hulle teruggery na die Potomacrivier in 'n reeks aksies langs Kearneysville- Shepherdstownweg. Early se bedoelings is egter onthul, en op 26 Augustus het Sheridan se infanterie 'n deel van die Konfederale vestigings in Halltown aangeval en oorrompel, wat Anderson en Kershaw genoop het om terug te keer na Stephenson's Depot. Vroeg laat vaar sy aanval en keer terug suid, en vestig 'n verdedigingslinie op die westelike oewer van Opequon Creek vanaf Bunker Hill na Stephenson's Depot.

Burgeroorlog in die Shenandoah Valley -veldtogkaart

Shenandoah Valley -veldtogkaart


Shenandoah -vallei

Op 29 Augustus het die Union -kavallerie die Opequon by Smithfield Crossing (Middleway) verbygesteek, maar is vinnig deur die spruit en buite die gehuggie deur die Konfederale infanterie teruggery. Unie -infanterie van die VI Corps het daarna gevorder en die lyn van die Opequon teruggekry. Dit was nog 'n keer in 'n reeks stootpunte en paries wat hierdie fase van die veldtog gekenmerk het, wat onder die soldate bekend was as die 'nabootsende oorlog'.

Op 2-3 September het Averell se kavalleriedivisie suid van Martinsburg gery en die Konfederale linkerflank by Bunker Hill getref, die Konfederale kavallerie verslaan, maar deur infanterie teruggedryf. Intussen konsentreer Sheridan sy infanterie naby Berryville. Op die middag van 3 September het Anderson se bevel elemente van Crook se korps (Army of West Virginia) in Berryville aangetref en aangeval, maar dit is afgeweer. Vroeër het sy hele leër op die 4de begin, maar Sheridan se posisie in Berryville was te sterk vasgemaak om aan te val. Vroeg weer teruggetrek na die Opequon -lyn.

Op 15 September het Anderson met Kershaw se afdeling en 'n artilleriebataljon die Winchester -gebied verlaat om na Lee se leër in Petersburg terug te keer en teen die 18de die Virginia -Piemonte bereik. Sy oorblywende afdelings het vroeg versprei van Winchester na Martinsburg, waar hy weer die B & ampO -spoorweg gesny het. Toe Sheridan verneem van Anderson se vertrek en die aanval op Martinsburg, besluit hy om dadelik aan te val terwyl die Konfederale leër verstrooi is.

Op 19 September vorder Sheridan sy leër op die Berryville Turnpike, wat die slag van Opequon neerslaan. Deur gedwonge optogte konsentreer Early sy leër betyds om Sheridan se grootste slag te onderskep. Die geveg het heeldag op die heuwels oos en noord van Winchester gewoed. Veterane van Early het twee afdelings van die XIX Corps en 'n VI Corps -afdeling in gevegte in die Middle Field en naby die Dinkle Barn uitgeskakel. Konfederale afdelingsbevelvoerder genl.genl Robert E. Rodes en unie -afdelingsbevelvoerder brig. Genl David A. Russell is binne die hitte van die gevegte binne 'n paar honderd meter van mekaar dood. Laatmiddag breek 'n flankbeweging deur Crook se korps en die Unie -kavallerie uiteindelik Early se uitgestrekte lyn noord van die stad. Opequon was 'n doen-of-sterf-poging van albei leërs, wat tot byna 9 000 slagoffers gelei het.

Sheridan 's victory was decisive but incomplete Early retreated twenty miles south to his entrenchments at Fisher’s Hill and Sheridan followed. Preliminary skirmishing on the 21st showed that a frontal assault would be costly, so Sheridan resorted to a flanking movement on September 22. Hidden from the Confederate signal station on Massanutten Mountain by the dense forest, Crook's two divisions marched along the shoulder of Little North Mountain to get behind the Confederate lines. In late afternoon, Crook's soldiers fell on Early's left flank and rear ``like an avalanche,'' throwing the Confederate army into panicked retreat. At Milford (Overall) in the Luray Valley on the same day Confederate cavalry prevented two divisions of Union cavalry from reaching Luray and passing New Market Gap to intercept Early's defeated army as it withdrew up the Valley.

Early retreated to Rockfish Gap near Waynesboro , opening the Valley to Union depredations and what became known as ``The Burning'' or ``Red October.'' Sheridan thought he had destroyed Early's army, but Kershaw's division and another brigade of cavalry were returned to the Valley, nearly making up the losses suffered at Opequon and Fisher's Hill. After convincing Grant that he could proceed no farther than Staunton, Sheridan withdrew down the Valley systematically burning mills, barns, and public buildings, destroying or carrying away the forage, grain, and livestock. During this portion of the campaign, Confederate partisan groups under John S. Mosby and Harry Gilmor increased their activities against Union supply lines in the Lower Valley .

Early followed Sheridan 's withdrawal, sending his cavalry under Maj. Gen. Thomas L. Rosser to harass the Union rear guard. Angered by Rosser's constant skirmishing, Sheridan ordered his commander of cavalry, Maj. Gen. Alfred T. Torbert, to ``whip the enemy or get whipped yourself.'' On October 9, Torbert unleashed the divisions of his young generals, Wesley Merritt and George Custer, on the Confederate cavalry, routing it at Tom’s Brook. In the melee that followed, victorious Union troopers chased the Confederates twenty miles up the pike and eight miles up the Back Road, in what came to be known as the ``Woodstock Races.'' The morale and efficiency of the Confederate cavalry were seriously impaired for the rest of the war.

On October 13, Early reoccupied Fisher's Hill and pushed through Strasburg to Hupp's Hill where he engaged a portion of Sheridan 's army. When Sheridan realized the proximity of Early's forces, he recalled the VI Corps, which had again been dispatched to join Grant. On October 19, at dawn, after an unparalleled night march, Confederate infantry directed by Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon surprised and overwhelmed the soldiers of Crook's corps in their camps at Cedar Creek . The XIX Corps suffered a like fate as the rest of Early's army joined the attack. Only the VI Corps maintained its order as it withdrew beyond Middletown , providing a screen behind which the other corps could regroup.

Sheridan, who was absent when the attack began, arrived on the field from Winchester and immediately began to organize a counterattack, saying ``if I had been with you this morning, boys, this would not have happened.'' In late afternoon, the Union army launched a coordinated counterattack that drove the Confederates back across Cedar Creek. Sheridan 's leadership turned the tide, transforming Early's stunning morning victory into afternoon disaster. Early retreated up the Valley under sharp criticism of his generalship, while President Abraham Lincoln rode the momentum of Sheridan 's victories in the Valley and Sherman 's successes in the Atlanta campaign to re-election in November. A campaign slogan of the time duly noted that the ``Early'' bird had gotten its ``Phil.''

Early attempted a last offensive in mid-November, advancing to Middletown . But his weakened cavalry was defeated by Union cavalry at Newtown ( Stephens City ) and Ninevah, forcing him to withdraw his infantry. The Union cavalry now so overpowered his own that Early could not maneuver offensively against Sheridan . On November 22, the cavalry fought at Rude's Hill, and on December 12, a second Union cavalry raid was turned back at Lacey Springs, ending active operations for the winter season. The winter was disastrous for the Confederate army, which was no longer able to sustain itself on the produce of the devastated Valley. Cavalry and infantry were returned to Lee's army at Petersburg or dispersed to feed and forage for themselves.

Riding through sleet on March 2, 1865, Custer's and Brig. Gen. Thomas Devin's cavalry divisions advanced from Staunton , arriving near Waynesboro in the early afternoon. There, they found Early's small army, consisting of a remnant of Brig. Gen. Gabriel Wharton's division and some artillery units. Early presented a brave front although the South River was to his rear, but in a few hours, the war for the Shenandoah Valley was over. Early's army fled before the Union cavalry, scattering up the mountainside. Early escaped with a few of his aides, riding away from his last battle with no forces left to contest Union control of the Shenandoah Valley .

With the Confederate threat in the Valley eliminated, General Sheridan led his cavalry overland to Petersburg to participate in the final campaign of the war, Richmond-Petersburg Campaign , in Virginia . On April 9, 1865, after collapse of the Petersburg lines and a harried retreat, General Robert E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House .


HISTORY CORNER: The Historic Shenandoah Valley

As the climate warmed during the last part of the Ice Age, large mammals such as the Mastodon migrated into the Shenandoah Valley and were hunted by the Indians.

This re-creation of frontier life in the Shenandoah Valley by the Frontier Culture Museum in Staunton, Va., depicts early settlement in the valley mostly by English, Irish and Germans starting in the 1700s.

Tennessee rifleman heading from Strasburg through Winchester in the Shenandoah Valley to join the Virginia Army early in the Civil War (1861).

The 1864 Battle of Cedar Creek effectively ended the Shenandoah Valley Campaigns when Union Major General Philip Sheridan routed Confederate Lieutenant General Jubal A. Early, thus preventing any further threat to Washington, D.C., and eliminated a major source of food for the Confederacy.

Artist Charles Hoffbauer's epic mural depicts Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and his troops marching 650 miles to the north through the Shenandoah Valley in 1862.

The Federal victory at the Battle of Fisher’s Hill on Sept. 22, 1864, led by Union General Philip Sheridan was followed by the Union forces “scorched earth” burning of the Confederacy’s crops and food sources in the Shenandoah Valley.

Confederate prisoners captured at the Battle of Fisher’s Hill in Virginia being guarded by Union troops.

Late in the Civil War, Union General Philip H. Sheridan, shown here, led his troops in a series of battles that took back control of the Shenandoah Valley and cut off a major source of the Confederacy’s food supply.

Frontier Culture Museum of Virginia in Staunton, Va., exhibit of replica of typical frontier cottages of original immigrants to Shenandoah Valley.

General “Stonewall” Jackson (1803-1863), riding Little Sorrel in this painting, led victorious battles by Confederate forces in the Shenandoah Valley.

Stonewall Jackson had only two portrait photographs taken during the Civil War, one in Winchester, Va., in November 1862 and the other near Fredericksburg, Va., this photo may be a third, Jackson on left leaning on rail.

General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson on his deathbed in 1863 after his left arm was injured in battle by friendly fire and amputated, with the wound leading to pneumonia and possible pulmonary embolism.

Staunton, Va., in the Shenandoah Valley today.

The Civil War played a big role in Shenandoah Valley’s history, but less known history is that it didn’t pay to be a stylish-looking con-man in Staunton, Va., as “F.T. Wister” found out in 1878 when he was caught after bilking several hotels and boarding houses — earning five lashes in a public whipping.

The Shenandoah Valley shared by both Virginia and West Virginia is truly a natural wonder, with velvety mountain ridges looking down on bucolic meadows, farm lands, forests and rivers teaming with life and feeding a nation.

Native Americans knew about the valley 10 millennia ago — maybe longer. They were hunters and gatherers — and among the hunted were mastodons with 10-foot-long ivory tasks, their bodies protected with 3-foot-long hair.

Just who was living there when the Europeans first arrived is a bit hazy. There are historical documents that claim that the Shenandoah was inhabited by primitive tribes “who were massacred by a mysterious tribe of ‘Southern Indians.’”

One report says that “By the seventeenth century, conflicts over trade and territory among the Indian nations inhabiting the Shenandoah forced them to abandon the land, leaving it seemingly deserted.”

A 1671 expedition journal by Johann Lederer exploring the Blue Ridge Mountains mentions the Rickohocken Tribe in southwest Virginia later called the “Cherokees.”

And to this day there are mounds, large indigenous town sites and pre-European ruins that can be seen in Western Virginia.

In 1760, travel writer Andrew Burnaby crossed the Blue Ridge Mountains and was awed by the beauty of the Shenandoah Valley.

“I could not but reflect with pleasure on the situation of these people and think if there is such a thing as happiness in life, that they enjoy it,” he wrote. “Far from the bustle of the world, they live in the most delightful climate, and richest soil imaginable… in perfect liberty: they are ignorant of want, and acquainted with but few vices…

“They possess what many princes would give half their dominions for — health, content, and tranquility of mind.”

Much of that would change around the early 1700s. European settlers came from England, Ireland, Germany, Switzerland and elsewhere. Quakers and Mennonites arrived from Pennsylvania.

There were some Native Americans in the Shenandoah at that time, and soon trouble brewed between the competing cultures.

That lasted until 1736, when Virginia Governor Sir William Gooch settled the turmoil by paying the Iroquois £100 for any settled land that they were claiming, and another £200 in gold the following year to stop any further claims.

Rich in agricultural resources, the Shenandoah Valley runs 140 miles northeast to southwest between the Allegheny Mountains in Virginia and the Blue Ridge Mountains in West Virginia — which in those early days was considered America’s Western Frontier.

Locals say “going up” the Shenandoah Valley means heading southwest to higher parts of the valley, while going northeast would be “down the valley,” to lower elevations.

During the ensuing century and a half, the valley sprouted farms and towns as the population grew.

Then in the middle of the 1900s, dark clouds of Civil War began gathering. After it started in 1861, both the Union and Confederacy battled for control of the Shenandoah for its food resources and strategic importance — especially for the South.

During the war, the valley was subjected to many battles in what became known as the Shenandoah Valley Campaigns.

For the first two years, the Confederates dominated then after that it was the Union for the rest of the war.

In the spring of 1862, Confederate morale was low. They’d been defeated at Fort Henry, Fort Donelson and Shiloh by General Ulysses S. Grant, and the South’s prospects seemed bleak.

In the East, Union forces were making important footholds, while in the South, Union gunboats had captured New Orleans.

Then Confederate General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson came into the scene.

He’d fought in the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) with distinction, and then spent 10 years teaching physics and artillery tactics at Virginia Military Institute.

He was an excellent teacher but the students didn’t like him much because of some quirky habits.

Nevertheless, he earned a reputation as an honest and dutiful man of devout faith, who didn’t drink, gamble or smoke.

When Virginia seceded from the Union in 1861, Jackson joined the Confederate cause and accepted a commission as a colonel in the Confederate army.

He quickly established his reputation as a brilliant military tactician in the Shenandoah Valley Campaign.

His genius was embodied in two maxims: “Always mystify, mislead, and surprise the enemy” and “never fight against heavy odds” if you can “hurl your own force on the weakest part of your enemy and crush it.”

Jackson put both strategies to use when he was given the daunting assignment of defending the Shenandoah Valley, while at the same time preventing Union troops there from being sent to either Fredericksburg or Richmond.

Jackson’s creative battle tactics constantly baffled the Union commanders.

His finest hour was from March to June 1862 when he won a series of five swift battles in the Shenandoah Valley by leading 17,000 Confederate troops 650 miles through the valley for 48 days and threatened Washington, D.C.

“We made a forced march … that resulted in aching limbs, sore feet and empty stomachs,” wrote Cleon Moore of the Second Virginia. “For one day and a half we marched — as only Jackson’s men could march.”

Jackson’s victories included the battles of Kernstown, McDowell, Front Royal, Winchester, Cross Keys and Port Republic.

The Battle of Port Republic was particularly significant, because it helped stop the Union plan during the Peninsula Campaign to capture Richmond, Va., the heart of the Confederacy.

Stonewall Jackson become a Confederate hero, while Robert E. Lee’s star was still yet to rise.

After Jackson’s Shenandoah Campaign — Confederate General Jubal A. Early continued driving out the remaining Union forces, and then proceeded to raid Maryland, Pennsylvania and D.C.

However, his successes ended in the autumn of 1864 when General Ulysses S. Grant ordered General Philip Sheridan to remove the Confederates once-and-for-all from the valley. He said to use the “scorched earth” tactic of burning the mills, crops and barns — like William Tecumseh Sherman did in Georgia.

“Do all the damage to railroads and crops you can,” he said. “If the war is to last another year, we want the Shenandoah Valley to remain a barren waste.”

Sheridan obeyed the order, declaring, “The people must be left nothing but their eyes to weep with over the war,” promising that the valley “from Winchester to Staunton will have but little in it for man or beast.”

He attacked from Winchester in the north to Harrisburg in the south, and the Shenandoah Valley battles became some of the most pivotal and memorable campaigns of the American Civil War.

Sheridan’s Shenandoah Campaign of 1864 included the battles of Guard Hill, Berryville, Winchester, Fisher’s Hill, Tom’s Brook and Cedar Creek — all Union victories that gave the Union forces control of the strategic valley, that they held for the rest of the war.

The last battle in the Shenandoah Valley was on March 2, 1865, when General George Armstrong Custer’s 3rd Cavalry Division destroyed Jubal A. Early’s troops at Waynesboro.

The final battle that ended the Civil War was a Union victory at the Battle of Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865, when Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Grant at a gentlemanly ceremony in a farmhouse owned by Wilmer and Virginia McLean.

Stonewall Jackson’s last hurrah was at the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 2, 1863, when he attacked Union General Joseph Hooker's Army of the Potomac from the rear, inflicting heavy casualties. Within days, Hooker pulled his troops out.

During that battle, Jackson was on a scouting mission when a North Carolina Confederate regiment mistook his band as the enemy and fired on them by mistake.

His left arm was shattered below the shoulder and had to be amputated.

While trying to recover, he developed pneumonia and possibly a pulmonary embolism and started to fade.

His bedside was surrounded by his wife, Anna, baby daughter Julia and several surgeons holding a vigil as he lapsed in and out of consciousness.

When he awoke and noticed the others, he said, “I see from the number of physicians that you think my condition dangerous, but I thank God, if it is His will, that I am ready to go. I am not afraid to die.”

Stonewall Jackson died on May 19, 1863, at age 39, and his body returned to Lexington in a casket for burial.

He was a true hero of the Confederacy.

Contact Syd Albright at [email protected]

Saving sovereignty — not Slavery…

“It was not for the defense of slavery that these men left their homes and suffered privation and faced the peril of battle. Bred in whatever school of American politics, these men believed, to a man, in the integrity and sovereignty of the commonwealth, and, men like Robert E. Lee, they laid down everything and came to the borders to resist invasion at the call of the Mother. The troops that Stonewall Jackson led were like him, largely, in principle and in aim, and he rode among them as one of themselves – a war genius of their own breeding.”

— James Power Smith, Confederate officer, writing in 1920

Nickname “Stonewall” …

At the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861 — also called the First Battle of Manassas — Jackson boldly charged his army into the defensive line to shore up a hole and stop a Union attack. Confederate General Barnard E. Bee, who was later killed in the battle, was watching all this and was impressed with Jackson’s quick thinking and told his men to take heart and to look at Jackson standing there “like a stone wall.” The nickname stuck.

Sheridan’s “scorched earth” tactic…

“We burnt some 60 houses and all most of the barns, hay, grain and corn in the shocks for 50 miles (south of) Strasburg… It was a hard-looking sight to see the women and children turned out of doors at this season of the year… the burning does not seem real soldierly work. We ought to enlist a force of scoundrels for such work.”

— Union soldiers in Shenandoah Valley (1864)

Shenandoah Valley attractions…

Rivaling California’s Napa Valley, the Shenandoah Valley has 14 wineries scattered throughout the valley, and interesting attractions include Civil War battelfields, the Luray limestone caverns, a 105-mile skyline drive with incredible vistas of the picturesque valley, a limestone arch called Natural Bridge, worshipped by the Monacan Indians, owned by Thomas Jefferson, and defaced by a young George Washington, and the valley is home to Black Bears and endangered salamanders.

VR IMAGE BY RICHARD THORNTON

As the climate warmed during the last part of the Ice Age, large mammals such as the Mastodon migrated into the Shenandoah Valley and were hunted by the Indians.

This re-creation of frontier life in the Shenandoah Valley by the Frontier Culture Museum in Staunton, Va., depicts early settlement in the valley mostly by English, Irish and Germans starting in the 1700s.

Tennessee rifleman heading from Strasburg through Winchester in the Shenandoah Valley to join the Virginia Army early in the Civil War (1861).

The 1864 Battle of Cedar Creek effectively ended the Shenandoah Valley Campaigns when Union Major General Philip Sheridan routed Confederate Lieutenant General Jubal A. Early, thus preventing any further threat to Washington, D.C., and eliminated a major source of food for the Confederacy.

VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY

Artist Charles Hoffbauer's epic mural depicts Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and his troops marching 650 miles to the north through the Shenandoah Valley in 1862.

SHENANDOAH VALLEY BATTLEFIELDS NATIONAL HISTORIC DISTRICT

The Federal victory at the Battle of Fisher’s Hill on Sept. 22, 1864, led by Union General Philip Sheridan was followed by the Union forces “scorched earth” burning of the Confederacy’s crops and food sources in the Shenandoah Valley.

Confederate prisoners captured at the Battle of Fisher’s Hill in Virginia being guarded by Union troops.

Late in the Civil War, Union General Philip H. Sheridan, shown here, led his troops in a series of battles that took back control of the Shenandoah Valley and cut off a major source of the Confederacy’s food supply.

FRONTIER CULTURE MUSEUM OF VIRGINIA

Frontier Culture Museum of Virginia in Staunton, Va., exhibit of replica of typical frontier cottages of original immigrants to Shenandoah Valley.

General “Stonewall” Jackson (1803-1863), riding Little Sorrel in this painting, led victorious battles by Confederate forces in the Shenandoah Valley.

Stonewall Jackson had only two portrait photographs taken during the Civil War, one in Winchester, Va., in November 1862 and the other near Fredericksburg, Va., this photo may be a third, Jackson on left leaning on rail.

General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson on his deathbed in 1863 after his left arm was injured in battle by friendly fire and amputated, with the wound leading to pneumonia and possible pulmonary embolism.


The Campaign:

In practice, it didn’t work out that way. Jackson’s swift-moving infantry, or “foot cavalry,” never numbered more than 6,000 men, but their mysterious marches, countermarches, and sudden attacks, were enough to mislead, surprise, and defeat the enemy throughout the Shenandoah Valley campaign of 1862 in the battles at Kernstown (23 March, a tactical defeat but a strategic victory because it diverted troops from McClellan’s Richmond campaign), McDowell (8 May), Front Royal (23 May), Winchester (25 May), Cross Keys (8 June), and Port Republic (9 June).


The Valley’s Civil War History

Memories of the Civil War are rife throughout the Shenandoah Valley.

There are even eight counties in the Valley that have been Congressionally designated as a National Heritage Area – the Shenandoah Valley Battlefields National Historic District–an effort led by the Shenandoah Valley Battlefields Foundation (540-740-4545), which works with partners to preserve and advance interest in the Valley’s battlefields.

Passionately preserved battlefields, museums small and large, colorful re-enactments and year-round special events honor those who fought and fell during that terrible conflict.

While a comprehensive guide is too wide-ranging for our allotted space, and we regret being unable to mention them all, here are some of the Valley’s most notable stops to make on a self-guided tour of Civil War sites.

Martinsburg, WV:
In 1861, when Belle Boyd was 17, she shot a Union soldier who cursed at her mother while he was searching the Boyd home for Confederate flags. Afterwards, Boyd became a notable spy for the Confederates. You can still tour the Belle Boyd House, also serving as the Berkeley County Museum, which was built by Boyd’s father in 1853.

Harpers Ferry:
See the U.S. Armory and Arsenal held by John Brown and his men in 1859.

Winchester: Civil War sites like the Kernstown Battlefield abound in and around Winchester. A good place to start is the Civil War Orientation Center, in the Winchester-Frederick County Visitors Center. Also, don’t miss Stonewall Jackson’s Headquarters. This Virginia and National Historic Landmark was used as headquarters by Jackson during the winter of 1861-1862. The house contains a large collection of Jackson memorabilia.

Middletown: Cedar Creek and Belle Grove National Historical Park offers exhibits representing the history of the Shenandoah Valley, the Civil War and the 1864 Battle of Cedar Creek. Guided and self-guided tours, and interpretive ranger programs enhance this battlefield experience. Start at the Visitor Contact Station, 7712 Main Street, Middletown.

Belle Grove is one of the outstanding historic mansions in the region. At its peak, the plantation property spanned 7,500 acres. This 1797 National Historic Landmark now serves as an educational center through the many interpretive programs it offers. Its priorities are to stimulate historical and preservation awareness among regional residents and visitors.

Strasburg: Hupp’s Hill Cedar Creek Museum commemorates the 1864 Valley campaign through artifacts, collections and theater presentations. The walking trails of the Civil War Park wind through 18 acres of well-preserved earthworks and tell the story of the property’s occupation by Federal troops in 1864.

Stephens City: Home to The Newtown History Center , one of many small museums in the Valley that do an exceptional job of preserving local history. Civil War Walking Tours are conducted and interpretive displays showcase the town’s wagon-making history and the cultural heritage of the region’s early settlers.

Front Royal: The Warren Rifles Confederate Museum houses firearms, flags, uniforms and accoutrements, cavalry equipment, rare documents and pictures, personal and domestic items and memorabilia of Belle Boyd, Mosby’s Rangers, Generals Jackson, Lee, Early, Longstreet, Ashby, and more.

New Market: The Virginia Museum of the Civil War, historic Bushong Farm, and a self-guided, 300-acre battlefield tour transport you to the Battle of New Market, fought just outside the museum and farm on May 15, 1864. Museum exhibits include Civil War art, firearms, and artifacts from the battle. More than 250 VMI cadets fought in this battle, many losing their shoes in the mud, an area now called the Field of Lost Shoes.

Harrisonburg: No less than 30 Civil War sites and six Civil War Trail markers can be found in Harrisonburg/Rockingham County. A sensible place to start is the Civil War Orientation Center. Housed in the Hardesty-Higgins House Visitor Center, the center displays a large map of the Valley’s major battles, a timeline of the Civil War in the Valley, and photos, a video presentation and more.

Dayton: Just outside Harrisonburg travelers can find The Heritage Museum. Among their Civil War exhibits is an Electric Map of Stonewall Jackson’s 1862 Valley Campaign. Other periods of local history are represented as well. Find more sites in and around Harrisonburg here.

Lexington: An iconic area in Civil War history. Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson are buried here. Jackson’s home in the downtown historic district, and Washington and Lee University keep the memories of both alive. In 1864, VMI was burned in Hunter’s Raid. Today, the VMI Museum—the oldest public museum in Virginia–is located in Jackson Memorial Hall on the Virginia Military Institute campus. If you can catch a Cadet Parade you’ll never forget it. Explore Lexington’s many other important sites here.

Verona: The Stonewall Brigade Museum houses a rare collection of artifacts from the 116th Infantry Regiment, 29th Division and the U. S. Army. The origins of the 116th Infantry Regiment go back to the early 1740s, when it was part of the Colonial Virginia Militia. Drawing its strength from Citizen-Soldiers, the fabled unit saw action in the French and Indian Wars, the American Revolution, the War of 1812, the American Civil War earning the name “The Stonewall Brigade,” and the First and Second World Wars.

Throughout the State: Virtually all Virginia tourists have stopped to read interpretive signs at major and minor Civil War sites, put there by Civil War Trails. In the Valley, many of these 380-plus informative signs can be seen along Routes 11 and 340, among others.


Military Significance

The geography of the Shenandoah Valley was a military mirror: the advantages it gave to one side were reflected in the advantages it offered the other. As the western flank of Union operations in

central Virginia, the Shenandoah provided the Union high command with a potential back-door route into Richmond , the Confederate capital, while it circumvented the obstacles that were Virginia’s eastern rivers. Further, to hold the valley was to bottle up and contain the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia . (Broadening the map broadened the Valley’s importance: it could be used as a staging area into Unionist east Tennessee, always a priority for Lincoln.)

Those advantages transposed Confederate ones. Because the Valley’s direction is generally southwest to northeast, it pointed dagger-like at the North and especially at Washington, D.C., only sixty miles from Harpers Ferry. For the Confederates, to control it was to control a pressure point, a natural and physically protected invasion route northward. It was precisely this advantage that Jackson so aggressively seized in the Valley Campaign of 1862 , in which his small army exploited the landscape to flummox more than 60,000 Union troops, threaten invasion and the U.S. capital, and thereby harass and stall the Union effort to capture Richmond.

On two other notable occasions, the Gettysburg Campaign of 1863 and Jubal A. Early’s raid on Washington in 1864, Confederates used the Valley to undertake offensive operations in the North. Further, as the so-called “Granary of the Confederacy”—the name suggests the increasingly powerful linkage between antebellum pastoral imagery and Confederate nationalism—the Shenandoah’s abundance supplied wheat, corn, meat, and especially draft animals to the Confederate war effort.

Stymied by ill-starred commanders and an uncoordinated grand strategy, the Union high command was slow to use its advantages. Finally, and in part because the Shenandoah had become what one scholar called an “iconic Confederate place,” the Union chose to take away enemy advantages rather than claim its own. This decision played out spasmodically, in stages, as the larger Valley Campaign of 1864 unfolded.

On May 15, 1864, a small Confederate force that included 257 cadets from the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington turned back the first Union offensive of the spring by defeating Union general Franz Sigel at the Battle of New Market . A second Union army under David Hunter succeeded in moving up the Valley all the way to Lexington, where on June 12 Hunter burned VMI as well as the home of former Virginia governor John Letcher .

Hunter, opposed in his front by a Confederate force under Early sent from Petersburg to stop him and from behind by ravenous partisans and guerrillas who disrupted his supply lines, chose to leave the valley and retreat into West Virginia. That movement reopened the Shenandoah Valley to Confederate control and made possible Early’s raid on Washington in July. Early’s movement, though unsustainable, brought to a head three summers of frustration in the Union high command and set the stage for a climatic, fiery autumn of holocaust.


The Valley’s Civil War History

Memories of the Civil War are rife throughout the Shenandoah Valley.

There are even eight counties in the Valley that have been Congressionally designated as a National Heritage Area – the Shenandoah Valley Battlefields National Historic District–an effort led by the Shenandoah Valley Battlefields Foundation (540-740-4545), which works with partners to preserve and advance interest in the Valley’s battlefields.

Passionately preserved battlefields, museums small and large, colorful re-enactments and year-round special events honor those who fought and fell during that terrible conflict.

While a comprehensive guide is too wide-ranging for our allotted space, and we regret being unable to mention them all, here are some of the Valley’s most notable stops to make on a self-guided tour of Civil War sites.

Martinsburg, WV:
In 1861, when Belle Boyd was 17, she shot a Union soldier who cursed at her mother while he was searching the Boyd home for Confederate flags. Afterwards, Boyd became a notable spy for the Confederates. You can still tour the Belle Boyd House, also serving as the Berkeley County Museum, which was built by Boyd’s father in 1853.

Harpers Ferry:
See the U.S. Armory and Arsenal held by John Brown and his men in 1859.

Winchester: Civil War sites like the Kernstown Battlefield abound in and around Winchester. A good place to start is the Civil War Orientation Center, in the Winchester-Frederick County Visitors Center. Also, don’t miss Stonewall Jackson’s Headquarters. This Virginia and National Historic Landmark was used as headquarters by Jackson during the winter of 1861-1862. The house contains a large collection of Jackson memorabilia.

Middletown: Cedar Creek and Belle Grove National Historical Park offers exhibits representing the history of the Shenandoah Valley, the Civil War and the 1864 Battle of Cedar Creek. Guided and self-guided tours, and interpretive ranger programs enhance this battlefield experience. Start at the Visitor Contact Station, 7712 Main Street, Middletown.

Belle Grove is one of the outstanding historic mansions in the region. At its peak, the plantation property spanned 7,500 acres. This 1797 National Historic Landmark now serves as an educational center through the many interpretive programs it offers. Its priorities are to stimulate historical and preservation awareness among regional residents and visitors.

Strasburg: Hupp’s Hill Cedar Creek Museum commemorates the 1864 Valley campaign through artifacts, collections and theater presentations. The walking trails of the Civil War Park wind through 18 acres of well-preserved earthworks and tell the story of the property’s occupation by Federal troops in 1864.

Stephens City: Home to The Newtown History Center , one of many small museums in the Valley that do an exceptional job of preserving local history. Civil War Walking Tours are conducted and interpretive displays showcase the town’s wagon-making history and the cultural heritage of the region’s early settlers.

Front Royal: The Warren Rifles Confederate Museum houses firearms, flags, uniforms and accoutrements, cavalry equipment, rare documents and pictures, personal and domestic items and memorabilia of Belle Boyd, Mosby’s Rangers, Generals Jackson, Lee, Early, Longstreet, Ashby, and more.

New Market: The Virginia Museum of the Civil War, historic Bushong Farm, and a self-guided, 300-acre battlefield tour transport you to the Battle of New Market, fought just outside the museum and farm on May 15, 1864. Museum exhibits include Civil War art, firearms, and artifacts from the battle. More than 250 VMI cadets fought in this battle, many losing their shoes in the mud, an area now called the Field of Lost Shoes.

Harrisonburg: No less than 30 Civil War sites and six Civil War Trail markers can be found in Harrisonburg/Rockingham County. A sensible place to start is the Civil War Orientation Center. Housed in the Hardesty-Higgins House Visitor Center, the center displays a large map of the Valley’s major battles, a timeline of the Civil War in the Valley, and photos, a video presentation and more.

Dayton: Just outside Harrisonburg travelers can find The Heritage Museum. Among their Civil War exhibits is an Electric Map of Stonewall Jackson’s 1862 Valley Campaign. Other periods of local history are represented as well. Find more sites in and around Harrisonburg here.

Lexington: An iconic area in Civil War history. Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson are buried here. Jackson’s home in the downtown historic district, and Washington and Lee University keep the memories of both alive. In 1864, VMI was burned in Hunter’s Raid. Today, the VMI Museum—the oldest public museum in Virginia–is located in Jackson Memorial Hall on the Virginia Military Institute campus. If you can catch a Cadet Parade you’ll never forget it. Explore Lexington’s many other important sites here.

Verona: The Stonewall Brigade Museum houses a rare collection of artifacts from the 116th Infantry Regiment, 29th Division and the U. S. Army. The origins of the 116th Infantry Regiment go back to the early 1740s, when it was part of the Colonial Virginia Militia. Drawing its strength from Citizen-Soldiers, the fabled unit saw action in the French and Indian Wars, the American Revolution, the War of 1812, the American Civil War earning the name “The Stonewall Brigade,” and the First and Second World Wars.

Throughout the State: Virtually all Virginia tourists have stopped to read interpretive signs at major and minor Civil War sites, put there by Civil War Trails. In the Valley, many of these 380-plus informative signs can be seen along Routes 11 and 340, among others.