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Wêreld se eerste duikbootaanval

Wêreld se eerste duikbootaanval


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Op 7 September 1776, tydens die Revolusionêre Oorlog, het die Amerikaanse dompelboot Skilpad probeer om 'n tydbom aan die romp van die Britse admiraal Richard Howe se vlagskip te heg Arend in die hawe van New York. Dit was die eerste gebruik van 'n duikboot in oorlogvoering.

Onderzeeërs is eers in die vroeë 17de eeu deur die Nederlandse uitvinder Cornelius van Drebel gebou, maar eers 150 jaar later is dit die eerste keer in vlootgevegte gebruik. David Bushnell, 'n Amerikaanse uitvinder, het begin om onderwatermyne te bou terwyl hy 'n student aan die Yale Universiteit was. Besluit hy dat 'n duikboot die beste manier sou wees om sy myne in oorlogvoering af te lewer, het hy 'n agt voet lange duikboot van hout gebou wat gedoop is Skilpad vir sy vorm. Die duikboot was groot genoeg om een ​​operateur te akkommodeer, en was heeltemal met die hand aangedryf. Loodballas het die vaartuig gebalanseerd gehou.

Geskenk aan die Patriot-saak ná die uitbreek van die oorlog met Brittanje in 1775, het Ezra Lee die vaartuig ongemerk na die 64-geweer HMS geloods Arend in die hawe van New York op 7 September 1776. Terwyl Lee besig was om 'n tydbom aan die romp te anker, kon hy Britse seemanne op die dek hierbo sien, maar hulle kon nie die vreemde vaartuig onder die oppervlak raaksien nie. Lee het die bom amper beveilig toe sy vervelige gereedskap nie in 'n laag ysteromhulsel kon dring nie. Hy het teruggetrek en die bom het daar naby ontplof, en dit het geen skade aan die Arend of die Skilpad.

Gedurende die volgende week het die Skilpad het nog 'n paar pogings aangewend om Britse skepe aan die Hudsonrivier te laat sink, maar dit het elke keer misluk weens die gebrek aan vaardigheid van die operateur. Slegs Bushnell kon werklik die ingewikkelde funksies van die duikboot bekwaam uitvoer, maar as gevolg van sy fisiese swakheid kon hy nie die Skilpad in enige van sy gevegsopdragte. Tydens die Slag van Fort Lee het die Skilpad was verlore toe die Amerikaanse sloep wat dit vervoer het deur die Britte gesink is.

Ten spyte van die mislukkings van die Skilpad, Het generaal George Washington Bushnell 'n opdrag as 'n weermagingenieur gegee, en die dryfmyne wat hy gebou het, het die Britse fregat vernietig Sereberus en het verwoesting gesaai teen ander Britse skepe. Na die oorlog word hy bevelvoerder van die Amerikaanse weermagkorps van ingenieurs wat by West Point gestasioneer is.

LEES MEER: 9 baanbrekende vroeë duikbote


Die verhaal agter die eerste duikboot om 'n oorlogskip te laat sink

By die toets van nuwe militêre tegnologie is daar altyd risiko's vir die operateurs. Toetsvlieëniers het in die vroeë dae van vliegtuie ontsettende sterftes gely, en die MV-22 Osprey het tydens sy ontwikkeling 'n reeks noodlottige ongelukke opgedoen, waaronder 19 dooie mariniers in 'n enkele ongeluk in 2000.

Maar die reeks ongelukke wat die Konfederasie getref het tydens sy pogings om 'n praktiese duikboot te bou, wys hoe ver veiligheidstandaarde tydens die oorlog by die venster kan uitkom.

Op 'n koue koue nag in 1864, net buite Charleston Harbour tydens die Burgeroorlog, het een van die grootste skepe in die Unie-vloot die eindelose patrollie uitgevoer wat by die instandhouding van 'n blokkade betrokke was. Die USS Housatonic, 'n sloep van 1160 ton, met 11 kanonne, het 'n taak gehad om die hawe van Charleston te blokkeer en af ​​en toe al meer as 'n jaar lank teiken op die see te bombardeer.

Wat gewoonlik die mees eentonige pligte was, het vinnig 'n historiese wending geneem toe die wagbeampte 'n vreemde laag-drywende voorwerp van die oewer af sien wat naby die Housatonic kom. Na aanvanklike verwarring in die donker oor wat die voorwerp was, het die uitkyk alarm gemaak en die sloep het laat gebeur.

Die wêreld se eerste suksesvolle aanval op 'n oorlogskip deur 'n gevegs duikboot, die CSS H.L. Hunley, was aan die gang.

'N Suid -Afrikaner wat desperaat is om die blokkade te verbreek

Sedert die uitbreek van die burgeroorlog is alle suidelike hawens geblokkeer onder genl Winfield Scott se Anaconda -plan, wat beide die suidelike handel wou verstik en uiteindelik die suide in twee verdeel het deur die beheer van die Mississippirivier.

Die druk van die blokkade op die suidelike ekonomie was skerp en het gelei tot die ontwikkeling van konfederale wapens wat ontwerp is om deur die vloot van die Unie te breek. Die beroemde botsing tussen die Konfederale ysterkleed Merrimack met die Union Monitor by die Slag van Hampton Roads was deel van die Konfederale poging om die wurggreep van die Unie oor die Chesapeake -baai van Virginia te verbreek.

Die botsing was die eerste keer dat ten volle gepantserde oorlogskepe mekaar in die geveg in die gesig staar, en hoewel die resultate besluiteloos was, was dit 'n groot verandering in die vlootstrategie in die Westerse wêreld. Maar ander innovasies in vloottegnologie was in die vooruitsig, soos die duikboot, 'n idee wat ten minste tot Leonardo Da Vinci dateer.

As u eers nie slaag nie, probeer dan weer

Die idee om onderdompelbare vaartuie te gebruik om oppervlakteskepe uit te neem, was nie 'n nuwe idee nie. Tydens die Amerikaanse Revolusie gebruik die Yale-voorgraadse David Bushnell 'n klein vatagtige, eenman-uitrusting met 'n klein roer en 'n handvatsel-skroef in verskeie pogings om Britse skepe met tydbomme aan te val, maar elke poging het misluk. Óf die stroom het die aanval verswak, óf die primitiewe bomme kon nie ontplof nie.

Dit was eers in die burgeroorlog dat relatief effektiewe ontwerpe wat deur mense aangedryf is, tot stand gekom het. Die USS Alligator, ontwerp deur die Fransman Brutus de Villeroi, is deur die Unie gekoop. Oorspronklik die taak om die Merrimack te vernietig, wat onnodig geword het met die vernietiging van die ysterkleed, het uiteindelik in slegte weer gesink terwyl dit vir 'n aanval op Charleston gesleep is.

Die eerste duikboot wat ooit 'n aanval suksesvol uitgevoer het, is aan die Konfederale Hunley oorgelaat.

Horace L. Hunley, die naamgenoot van die duikboot, het 'n gevarieerde loopbaan gehad as prokureur, planter, wetgewer in Louisiana en sakeman van New Orleans tot aan die begin van die oorlog. In 1861 het hy kragte saamgespan met die ingenieurs James R. McClintock en Baxter Watson om die eerste drie duikbote van die Konfederasie te bou: die Pioneer, American Diver en die Hunley.

Die eerste twee ontwerpe het verlore geraak voordat dit ontplooi is, terwyl die Pioneer ontwrig is om te voorkom dat die Unie vasgevang word en dat die Amerikaanse duiker in slegte weer sink. Die Hunley was die span se derde en laaste poging.

Die Hunley, vervaardig uit 'n stoomketel, was 40 voet lank en word aangedryf deur sewe mans wat 'n handvatsel draai, met 'n offisier as vlieënier. Die boot was ongelooflik beknop, met 'n romphoogte van bietjie meer as vier voet en luike so smal dat dit moeilik was om te ontsnap. Ballastpompe is almal met die hand bedien, en die duikkontroles was op sy beste primitief.

Na 'n belowende toets met behulp van 'n gesleepte torpedo om 'n doelskuit skouspelagtig te vernietig, is die Hunley vinnig na Charleston gestuur, wat onder streng blokkade en gereelde bombardement was. Die onderzeeër is in beslag geneem deur die konfederale garnisoen van sy private eienaars en deur die weermag beman, alhoewel Hunley en sy vennote as adviseurs gebly het. Die haas om die duikboot te ontplooi, het tot verskeie tragedies gelei.

Tydens 'n proeflopie het die Hunley gesink toe die skipper per ongeluk die duikbeheermaatreëls getref het terwyl die luike nog oop was en vyf mans hul lewens verloor het. Om nie af te skrik nie, het die boot gelig en die toetsing is weer begin.

Toe die gewone kaptein, luitenant George Dixon, met verlof afwesig was nadat hy verskeie suksesvolle duikslae voltooi het, het Hunley self die sub vir 'n oefenlopie geneem. Die duikboot het ondergedompel en het nie weer opgeduik nie, moontlik as gevolg van nog 'n oop luik.

Konfederale genl P.G.T Beauregard het in die nadraai geskryf: "Toe die boot ontdek, opgelig en oopgemaak is, was die skouspel onbeskryflik en die ongelukkige manne het in allerhande verskriklike gesindhede verdraai." Hunley is deur sy eie skepping vermoor.

Beauregard, geskok oor die ongeluk, was aanvanklik huiwerig om die duikbootprogram voort te sit, maar Dixon het hom anders oortuig. 'Na hierdie tragedie het ek geweier om toe te laat dat die boot weer gebruik word, maar luitenant Dixon, 'n dapper en vasberade man, wat na Charleston teruggekeer het, het by my aansoek gedoen om toestemming om die boot te gebruik teen die Federale Steam-sloep-van-oorlog Housatonic.

Dood van onder die oppervlak

Die bewapening is vervang met 'n spar-torpedo wat 'n kernkop van 125 pond gemonteer het. Dit is ontwerp om homself aan die kant van 'n skip vas te maak en dan deur 'n tou ontplof te word terwyl die duikboot wegtrek. Op 17 Februarie 1864 het die Hunley sy eerste en enigste aanval op die Housatonic twee en 'n half kilometer van die oewer van Charleston Harbour geloods.

Nadat die Hunley op 'n afstand van 100 meter deur die wagbeampte opgemerk is, het 'n woedende alarm afgegaan. Die bemanning van die skip het ontdek dat hulle nie 'n voorwerp so laag in die water en naby hul skip met hul kanon kon teiken nie, en hulle het die ankerketting gegly en die enjin ondersteun om die aanval te vermy.

Die Hunley het daarin geslaag om die torpedo teen die Housatonic te plant en het vir die ontploffing teruggekeer. Die dekpersoneel het wanhopig begin om die terugtrekkende duikboot met geweer en pistoolvuur te hark, maar dit was te min en te laat. 'N Massiewe ontploffing het die Housatonic getref, en binne vyf minute was die skip heeltemal onder water. Vyf van haar bemanning is dood in die aanval. 150 ander is gered.

Wat met die Hunley gebeur het, is onseker. Terwyl baie geglo het dat sy deur die ontploffing van haar eie torpedo gesink is, word geglo dat die duikboot die aanvanklike aanval oorleef het en om onbekende redes gesink het. 'N Blou lig van die duikboot as 'n teken van terugkeer na die basis is van die strand af gesien, maar die Hunley het nooit weer teruggekeer nie.

Die vind van die Hunley

Die Konfederale duikboot H.L. Hunley, wat uit 'n hyskraan gehang is tydens haar herstel van Charleston Harbour, 8 Augustus 2000.

Baie pogings om die Hunley te vind nadat dit gesink het, is gedoen. Bekende showman P.T. Barnum het selfs 'n beloning van $ 100,000 dollar aangebied aan almal wat dit kon vind. Die ligging daarvan is eers in 1995 beslissend bevestig, nadat skrywer Clive Cussler, skrywer van baie rillers met nautiese temas, 15 jaar lank daarna gesoek het saam met sy organisasie die National Underwater Marine Agency. Die duikboot was bedek met slik, en dit het 'n magnetometer geneem om dit uiteindelik op te spoor.

Na 'n uitgebreide hersteloperasie, is die vaartuig uiteindelik in 2000 grootgemaak. Dit is aan die deelstaat South Carolina geskenk en woon tans in die Warren Lasch Conservation Center in die voormalige Charleston Navy Yard, waar dit nog bestudeer word.

Die Hunley was 'n baanbreker, wat die eerste keer was dat 'n duikboot 'n vyandskip suksesvol aangeval en laat sink het. Die prys wat in die ontwikkeling daarvan betaal is, was ernstig, met Horace Hunley wat self die slagoffer geword het van onstuimige en primitiewe tegnologie.

Maar die moed wat manne wat bereid is om hulself telkens weer te dompel in weinig meer as 'n drywende ysterkis, kan nie ontken word nie, en die vasberadenheid wat getoon word in die lig van die tragedie om 'n verstikkende blokkade te verbreek, is een van die mees innoverende en intrigerendste episodes uit die burgeroorlog.


Die bou van die skilpad

Via: Dive Master King, Wikimedia Commons - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0

Teen die begin van die Amerikaanse rewolusie het 'n uitvinder met die naam David Bushnell erken dat die verskillende Amerikaanse milisies baie probleme ondervind om Britse skepe af te weer. Die rede vir hierdie kwessies was dat die Britse vloot op sy hoogtepunt was toe die konflik so uitbreek, wat dit nogal moeilik maak om 'n vlootgeveg te wen.

As gevolg hiervan het Bushnell besluit dat die beste manier om skepe van Groot -Brittanje te verwyder, dit deur middel van geheime operasies sou wees. Om hierdie belangrike taak te verrig, het Bushnell sy kundigheid oor onderwaterontploffings en sy beperkte kennis van duikbote saamgestel.

Die eindresultaat was 'n eikelvormige dompelpomp wat (in die praktyk) plofstof aan die romp van die beste vaartuie van Engeland sou kon heg. Om die eksperimentele vaartuig te bou, gebruik Bushnell twee houtskulpies wat met teer geverf is en dit met staalhakies vasgemaak. Om die oorlogsskip onder water te bestuur, is propellers en 'n handpomp aangebring waarmee die subway onder water kon styg en sak.


Inhoud

Die Amerikaanse uitvinder David Bushnell het die idee van 'n dompelboot gemaak om die Britse vlootblokkade tydens die Amerikaanse onafhanklikheidsoorlog op te hef. Bushnell het moontlik onder waterontploffings begin studeer terwyl hy aan die Yale College was. Vroeg in 1775 het hy 'n betroubare metode geskep vir die ontploffing van onderwater plofstof, 'n uurwerk wat gekoppel is aan 'n muskietvuurmeganisme, waarskynlik 'n vuursteen, wat vir die doel aangepas is. [1]

Na die Battles of Lexington en Concord in April 1775, het Bushnell naby Old Saybrook begin werk aan 'n klein, individueel bemande dompelaar wat ontwerp is om 'n plofbare lading aan die romp van 'n vyandskip te heg, wat hy, Benjamin Franklin geskryf het, sou wees, " Gemaak met groot eenvoud en volgens die beginsels van die natuurfilosofie. " [2]

Min is bekend oor die oorsprong, inspirasie en invloede van Bushnell se uitvinding. Dit blyk duidelik dat Bushnell geweet het van die werk van die Nederlandse uitvinder Cornelius Drebbel. [3]

Volgens dr. Benjamin Gale, 'n dokter wat by Yale skoolgehou het, is die vele koper en meganiese (bewegende) dele van die duikboot gebou deur die New Haven-klokmaker, graveur, silwersmid, kopervervaardiger en uitvinder Isaac Doolittle, [4] wie se winkel net 'n half blok van Yale af was. [5] Alhoewel Bushnell die algehele ontwerpkrediet kry vir die Skilpad deur Gale en ander, was Doolittle bekend as 'n "vernuftige werktuigkundige" (dit wil sê 'n ingenieur), graveerder en metaalwerker. [4] Hy het beide ingewikkelde messingwielhorlosies ontwerp, vervaardig en vervaardig, 'n drukpers in mahonie in 1769 (die eerste vervaardiging in Amerika, nadat Doolittle die ysterskroef suksesvol gedupliseer het), [6] [7] koperpassers, en opmetingsinstrumente. Hy het ook 'n koper gieterij gestig en besit waar hy klokke gegooi het. Aan die begin van die Amerikaanse rewolusie het die welgestelde en patriotiese Doolittle 'n kruitmeule saam met twee vennote in New Haven gebou om die oorlog te ondersteun, en is deur die regering van Connecticut gestuur om lood te soek. [8]

Alhoewel die ontwerp van die Skilpad was noodwendig geheim gehou, [10] op grond van sy meganiese ingenieurswese en vorige ervaring in ontwerp en vervaardiging, dit lyk asof Doolittle die koper en die bewegende dele van die koper ontwerp en vervaardig (en waarskynlik befonds) Skilpad, [11] insluitend die aandrywingstelsel, [12] die navigasie-instrumente, [13] die messing voetbediende waterballas en dwingpompe, [14] die dieptemeter en kompas, [15] die koperluik van koper, [16 ] die ontsteking van die myn vir die myn, [17] en die handbediende skroefkruk en voetgedrewe trap met vliegwiel. [18] Volgens 'n brief van dr. Benjamin Gale aan Benjamin Franklin het Doolittle ook die mynaanhegingsmeganisme ontwerp, "die dele wat die poeier vervoer en dieselfde aan die onderkant van die skip vasmaak". [19] Die mees histories belangrike innovasie in die Skilpad was die skroef, aangesien dit die eerste bekende gebruik van een in 'n watervaartuig was: dit is beskryf as 'n 'roeispaan om vorentoe of agtertoe te roei', sonder 'n presedent 'ontwerp [20] en in 'n brief van dr. Benjamin Gale aan Silas Dean as "'n paar spane vasgemaak soos die twee teenoorgestelde arms van 'n windpomp" [21] en as "twee roeispane of spane" wat "soos die arms van 'n windpomp was. Twaalf sentimeter lank en ongeveer vier breed". [22] Aangesien dit waarskynlik koper was, is dit waarskynlik deur Doolittle ontwerp en gesmee. [23] Doolittle het ook waarskynlik die skaars goedere van kruit en loodballas verskaf. [24] Die welgestelde Doolittle, byna 20 jaar ouer as die Yale-student Bushnell, was 'n stigter en jarelange bewaarder van die Trinity Episcopal Church on the Green, [25] en was in beheer van New Haven se hawe-inspeksie en baken-alarmstelsels [ 26] [27] - wat daarop dui dat Doolittle 'n groot deel van die politieke en finansiële leierskap by die bou van die Skilpad sowel as die koper en bewegende dele.

By die vervaardiging van die romp het Bushnell die dienste van verskeie bekwame ambagsmanne ingeroep, waaronder sy broer, die boer Ezra Bushnell, en die timmerman van die skip Phineas Pratt, albei, net soos David Bushnell, van Saybrook. [28] Die romp was "gemaak van eikehout, 'n bietjie soos 'n vat en gebind deur swaar ysterringe." [29] Die vorm van die romp, het Gale aan Silas Deane ingelig, "het die naaste ooreenkoms met die twee boonste skulpe van 'n skilpad wat saamgevoeg is." [30]

Vernoem na sy vorm, Skilpad Dit lyk net soos 'n groot mossel soos 'n skilpad, dit was ongeveer 3,0 m lank (volgens die oorspronklike spesifikasies), 1,8 m lank en ongeveer 0,9 m breed en bestaan ​​uit twee hout skulpe bedek met teer en versterk met staalbande. [31] Dit duik deur water in 'n lens tenk aan die onderkant van die vaartuig toe te laat en styg op deur water deur 'n handpomp uit te stoot. Dit is vertikaal en horisontaal deur handskroef aangedryf. Dit het ook 91 kilogram lood aan boord, wat in 'n oomblik vrygestel kon word om die dryfvermoë te verhoog. Die vaartuig was beman en bestuur deur een persoon en bevat genoeg lug vir ongeveer dertig minute en het 'n snelheid in stil water van ongeveer 2,6 kn 4,8 km/h. [31]

Ses klein stukkies dik glas aan die bokant van die duikboot het natuurlike lig verskaf. [31] Die interne instrumente het klein stukkies bioluminescerende jakkalsvuur op die naalde aangebring om hul posisie in die donker aan te dui. Tydens proewe in November 1775 het Bushnell ontdek dat hierdie beligting misluk het toe die temperatuur te laag was. Alhoewel herhaaldelike versoeke aan Benjamin Franklin gerig is vir moontlike alternatiewe, was daar nie een nie, en Skilpad was vir die winter langs die kantlyn. [32]

Bushnell se basiese ontwerp bevat 'n paar elemente wat in vorige eksperimentele dompelpompe voorkom. Die metode om die vaartuig te verhoog en te laat sak, was soortgelyk aan dié wat Nathaniel Simons in 1729 ontwikkel het, en die pakkings wat gebruik is om waterdigte verbindings rondom die verbindings tussen die interne en eksterne kontroles te maak, kan ook afkomstig wees van Simons, wat 'n dompelpomp gebou het op 'n 17de-eeuse Italiaanse ontwerp deur Giovanni Alfonso Borelli. [33]

Een van die belangrikste bekommernisse vir Bushnell terwyl hy die Skilpad befondsing was.

As gevolg van koloniale pogings om die bestaan ​​van hierdie potensiële oorlogsbate vir die Britte geheim te hou, het die koloniale rekords oor die Skilpad is dikwels kort en kripties. Die meeste rekords wat daar bestaan, het betrekking op Bushnell se versoek om geld. [34] Bushnell het tydens 1771 met Jonathan Trumbull, die goewerneur van Connecticut, vergader om finansiële steun te soek. Trumbull het ook versoeke aan George Washington en Thomas Jefferson gestuur. Jefferson, wat self 'n uitvinder was, was geïnteresseerd in die moontlikhede, terwyl Washington skepties was oor die besteding van geld van die kontinentale weermag, wie se befondsing reeds gestrek is. Uiteindelik kon Washington 'n paar fondse voorsien, moontlik as gevolg van Trumbull se invloed.

Verskeie terugslae het die ontwerpproses geteister. Veral die myn is verskeie kere vertraag van die verwagte voltooiing van 1771 tot 1776. Die bestuur van die SkilpadVerder het dit groot fisieke uithouvermoë en koördinasie vereis. Die operateur sal die lens moet verstel om te keer dat dit sink, terwyl hy sy eie aandrywing bied deur middel van 'n kruk, wat 'n skroef aan die voorkant van die duikboot werk, en rigting met behulp van 'n hefboom wat kan bestuur en stuur roer in die rug. Die kajuit het glo ook slegs dertig minute se gebruik in die lug gehou. Daarna sal die operateur deur 'n ventilator na die oppervlak moet kom en die lug moet aanvul. Uiteraard is opleiding nodig om die sukses van die projek te verseker as gevolg van die komplekse aard van die masjien. "Die boot is verskuif van Ezra se plaas op die Westbrookweg na wat nou Ayer's Point in Old Saybrook aan die Connecticutrivier is," skryf historikus Lincoln Diamant. [35] Bushnell het 'n Yale -verbinding hier gehad wat hom in staat gestel het om in geheimhouding verhore uit te voer. Bushnell het die eerste toets van sy duikboot hier gedoen en sy broer, Ezra, as die vlieënier gekies. Ondanks Bushnell se aandrang op geheimhouding rondom sy werk, het nuus daarvan vinnig na die Britte gekom, opgemerk deur 'n lojale spioen wat vir die New Yorkse kongreslid James Duane gewerk het.

In Augustus 1776 vra Bushnell vir generaal Samuel Holden Parsons dat vrywilligers opereer Skilpad, omdat sy broer Ezra, wat tydens vroeëre proewe by Ayer's Point aan die rivier die Connecticut die bestuurder was, siek geword het. [36] Drie mans is gekies, en die dompelaar is na Long Island Sound geneem vir opleiding en verdere proewe. [37] Terwyl hierdie proewe voortgegaan het, het die Britte in die Slag van Long Island op 27 Augustus beheer oor die westelike Long Island verkry. Aangesien die Britte nou die hawe beheer het, Skilpad is van New Rochelle na die Hudsonrivier oor land vervoer. Na twee weke se opleiding, Skilpad is na New York gesleep, en sy nuwe operateur, sers. Ezra Lee, bereid om die vlagskip van die blokkade -eskader, HMS, aan te val Arend. [38]

Die vernietiging van hierdie simbool van Britse vlootmag deur middel van 'n duikboot sou ten minste 'n slag vir die Britse moraal wees en moontlik die Britse blokkade en beheer van die hawe van New York bedreig. Die plan was om Lee net agter te laat kom Arend se roer en gebruik 'n skroef om 'n plofstof aan die romp van die skip vas te maak. Nadat Lee geheg was, sou hy weer die water binnegaan en wegkom. [39]

Om 23:00 op 6 September 1776 het sers. Lee het die dompelpyp bestuur na die vlagskip van admiraal Richard Howe, Arend, dan vasgemeer van Governors Island af.

Daardie aand het Lee die klein vaartuig na die ankerplek beweeg. Dit het twee uur geneem om sy bestemming te bereik, aangesien dit harde werk was om die handbediende bedieningselemente en voetpedale te manipuleer om die dompelpomp in posisie te dryf. 'N Redelike sterk stroom en die duisternis kruip oor die hoof, wat die sigbaarheid bemoeilik.

Die plan het misluk. Lee het sy missie begin met slegs twintig minute lug, om nog maar te praat van die komplikasies van die bestuur van die vaartuig. Die duisternis, die spoed van die strome en die bykomende kompleksiteite dra by tot Lee se plan. Nadat hy opgeduik het, het Lee die lont op die plofstof aangesteek en verskeie kere probeer om die toestel aan die onderkant van die skip te steek. Ongelukkig kon Lee na verskeie pogings nie deurboor nie Arend se romp en die operasie laat vaar, aangesien die tydopnemer op die plofstof sou gaan en hy was bang dat hy met dagbreek vasgevang sou word. Volgens 'n gewilde verhaal het hy misluk as gevolg van die kopervoering wat die romp van die skip bedek het. Die Royal Navy het onlangs begin met die installering van kopermantel op die bodem van hul oorlogskepe om te beskerm teen skade deur houtwurms en ander seelewe, maar die voering was papier-dun en kon Lee nie daarvan weerhou het om daardeur te boor nie. Bushnell het geglo dat Lee se mislukking waarskynlik te wyte was aan 'n ysterplaat wat aan die roer van die skip gekoppel is. [40] Toe Lee 'n ander plek in die romp probeer, kon hy nie onder die skip bly nie en het hy uiteindelik die poging laat vaar. Dit lyk meer waarskynlik dat hy aan moegheid en inaseming van koolstofdioksied ly, wat hom verward gemaak het en nie in staat was om die boorproses behoorlik uit te voer nie. Arend se romp. Lee het berig dat Britse soldate op Governors Island die onderdompelaar raakgesien het en geroei het om ondersoek in te stel. Daarna het hy die aanklag (wat hy 'n "torpedo" genoem het, die heersende term vir onderwater ploftoestelle voor ongeveer 1890 genoem) vrygelaat, "in die verwagting dat hulle dit ook sou gryp, en dat alles dus tot atome geblaas sou word." [40] Die Britte was agterdogtig oor die dryfkrag en het teruggetrek na die eiland. Lee het berig dat die aanklag in die Oosrivier ingedryf het, waar dit ontplof het "met geweldige geweld, groot kolomme water en stukke hout wat dit hoog in die lug gegooi het." [40] Dit was die eerste aangetekende gebruik van 'n duikboot om 'n skip aan te val [33], maar die enigste rekords wat dit dokumenteer, is Amerikaans. Britse rekords bevat geen verslag van 'n aanval deur 'n duikboot of enige berigte van ontploffings die aand van die vermeende aanval nie Arend. [41]

Volgens die Britse vloothistorikus Richard Compton-Hall sou die probleme met die bereiking van neutrale dryfkrag die vertikale propeller nutteloos gemaak het. Die roete Skilpad sou moes vat om aan te val Arend was effens oor die gety, wat na alle waarskynlikheid daartoe sou lei dat Lee uitgeput raak. [41] In die lig van hierdie en ander probleme, stel Compton-Hall voor dat die hele verhaal as disinformasie en propaganda vir die verhoging van moreel was, en as Lee wel 'n aanval uitgevoer het, was dit eerder in 'n bedekte roeiboot as Skilpad. [41]

Ten spyte daarvan Skilpad As hy misluk, noem Washington Bushnell ''n man met groot meganiese magte, vrugbaar vir uitvinding en 'n meester in uitvoering.' Terugskouend het Washington in 'n brief aan Thomas Jefferson opgemerk: "[Bushnell] kom in 1776 na my toe aanbeveel deur goewerneur Trumbull (nou dood) en ander agbare karakters ... Hoewel ek self geloof wou hê, het ek hom geld en ander hulpmiddels voorsien Hy het 'n geruime tyd ondoeltreffend gewerk, en hoewel die voorstanders van sy plan volhard het, het hy dit nooit reggekry nie. Die een of ander ongeluk het altyd tussenbeide getree. maar dat 'n kombinasie van te veel dinge nodig was ... "[42]

Skilpad se aanval op Arend weerspieël beide die vindingrykheid van Amerikaanse magte na die val van New York en die neiging van die swakker strydlustige om nuwe, soms radikale tegnologieë aan te neem en te omhels. 'Watter verbasing dit sal oplewer en watter voordele dit kan inhou ... as dit slaag, is dit makliker vir u om te dink as wat ek kan beskryf,' het dokter Benjamin Gale minder as 'n jaar tevore aan Silas Deane geskryf Skilpad 'se missie.

Die uiteindelike lot van die duikboot is nie bekend nie, alhoewel daar geglo word dat nadat die Britte New York ingeneem het, die Skilpad is vernietig om te verhoed dat sy in vyandelike hande val.

Op 5 Oktober het sersant Lee weer uitgegaan in 'n poging om die aanklag te heg aan 'n fregat wat by Manhattan veranker was. Hy het gerapporteer dat die skip se horlosie hom raakgesien het, en daarom het hy die poging laat vaar. Die duikboot is 'n paar dae later deur die Britte aan boord van sy tenderskip naby Fort Lee, New Jersey, gesink. Bushnell het berig dat hy gered het Skilpad, maar die uiteindelike lot daarvan is onbekend. [43] Washington noem die poging ''n poging van genie' ', maar' ''n kombinasie van te veel dinge was nodig' 'vir so 'n poging om te slaag. [44]

Volg Skilpad 'Met sy aborsiewe aanval in die hawe in New York, het Bushnell sy werk in onderwater plofstof voortgesit. In 1777 het hy myne bedink om gesleep te word vir 'n aanval op HMS Cerberus naby die New London -hawe [45] en om langs die Delaware -rivier te dryf in 'n poging om die Britse vloot by Philadelphia te onderbreek. [46] Beide pogings het misluk, en laasgenoemde het 'n kort, indien verregaande, plek in die literatuur van die oorlog ingeneem. Die gedig van Francis Hopkinson "Battle of the Kegs" het die verrassende, indien nuttelose, onderneming aangegryp: "Die soldaat het gevlieg, ook die matroos, en, amper doodgeskrik, meneer, het hulle skoene uitgetrek om die nuus te versprei, en gehardloop. asemhaal, meneer. "

Toe die Connecticut-regering weier om nog 'n onderwaterprojek te befonds, het Bushnell hom as kaptein-luitenant van sappers en mynwerkers by die kontinentale weermag aangesluit en verskeie jare lank met lof aan die Hudsonrivier in New York gedien. [47] Na die oorlog het Bushnell in die duisternis gedryf. Hy besoek Frankryk vir 'n paar jaar, verhuis daarna in 1795 na Georgië onder die naam David Bush, waar hy skoolgehou en medisyne beoefen het. Hy sterf grootliks onbekend in Georgië in 1824. Na die oorlog is uitvinders soos Robert Fulton beïnvloed deur Bushnell se ontwerpe in die ontwikkeling van onderwater plofstof.

Ten spyte daarvan Skilpad 'As gevolg van die tekortkominge, was Bushnell se uitvinding 'n belangrike mylpaal in duikboottegnologie. Die Amerikaanse uitvinder Robert Fulton het sy duikboot bedink Nautilus in die eerste jare van die negentiende eeu en dit na Europa geneem toe die Verenigde State grootliks oninteresseer was in die ontwerp. Tydens die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog het die Konfederale State van Amerika, wat in 'n soortgelyke situasie as dié van die kolonies tydens die Vryheidsoorlog te staan ​​gekom het, 'n operasionele duikboot CSS ontwikkel H. L. Hunley, wie se vernietiging van die USS Housatonies in die Charleston -hawe in Februarie 1864 was die eerste suksesvolle duikbootaanval in die geskiedenis. Teen die vroeë twintigste eeu het die wêreld se vloot in groter getalle duikbote begin aanneem. Net soos Bushnell se ontwerp, het hierdie bote die natuurlike vorme van seediere in hul rompontwerpe nageboots. Soos 'n hedendaagse historikus van duikbote in 1901 waargeneem het, het die evolusie van die moderne duikboot ontstaan ​​uit die walvis, wat hy beskou het as 'n "duikboot wat deur die natuur uit 'n soogdier gemaak is".

Alhoewel Bushnell se naam nie algemeen bekend is nie, word hy dikwels erken dat hy 'n vlootoorlog van onder af het. Bushnell's Skilpad 'n militêre uitkykpunt geskep voor die Revolusionêre Oorlog-'n uitsig onder die oorlogsgeteisterde waters. Soos historikus Alex Roland aanvoer, is Bushnell se nalatenskap as uitvinder ook verbrand deur Amerikaanse skrywers en historici wat Bushnell en sy duikboot in die vroeë negentiende eeu geloveer het. Vir 'n nuwe naoorlogse generasie Amerikaners was hy 'die vernuftige patriot wat die duikboot uitgevind het wat die Britte bang gemaak het'. Bushnell het aangesluit by die geledere van Amerikaanse uitvinders van die era, soos Eli Whitney en Robert Fulton. Hierdie mans het as nasionale helde gedien vir Amerikaners wat gepleit het vir tegnologiese vooruitgang en die manne wat dit vervaardig, verafgod het. 'Of die motiewe militêre trots of wetenskaplike nasionalisme was', beweer Roland, 'dit was vir Amerikaners in die eerste halfeeu na die rewolusie belangrik om Bushnell se duikboot as 'n Amerikaanse oorspronklike te beskou.

Tog, terwyl die Skilpad beklee 'n prominente plek in die geskiedenis van tegnologie en militêre geskiedenis, dui Roland se geleerdheid op ander tegnologiese voorrang wat Bushnell se ontwerp byna beslis beïnvloed het. Roland wys op Denis Papin, 'n Franse dokter, fisikus en lid van die Royal Society en die Academíe des Sciences, wie se twee duikbote moontlik 'n model vir Bushnell kon wees. "Die duikboot Bushnell wat ontwerp en gebou is. Het kenmerke eie aan beide weergawes van Papin." Soos die historikus van tegnologie, Carroll Purcell beweer, was sulke trans-Atlantiese tegnologie kruisbemesting in hierdie era amper uitsonderlik.

Sedert die Skilpad 'se opkoms meer as twee eeue gelede, het die internasionale speelveld gelyk geword. Die monopolie op dompelbare tegnologie wat eens in die Verenigde State gehou is, het mettertyd verlore gegaan, aangesien ander vlootvliegtuie oor die hele wêreld onderzeese oorlogvoering gemoderniseer en aangeneem het. Van die vernuwings van John Holland in die vroeë twintigste eeu tot die Duitse U-boot-veldtogte van die Wêreldoorloë en die kern-aangedrewe ICBM-duikbote van die Koue Oorlog, moderne vloot het die duikboot omhels, eerstens vir missies van verkenning en handel- aanvalle, maar toenemend in aanvallende, aanvallende rolle. In die naoorlogse era het die duikboot 'n sentrale komponent van die moderne vloot geword. Die gebruik van duikbote het veel verder gegaan as Bushnell se opvatting van die opheffing van vlootblokkades wat bedoel is om 'n land droog te maak van hul invoer om 'n noodsaaklike deel van offensiewe vlootoorlog en magprojeksie te word.

Die Skilpad was the first submersible vessel used for combat and led to the development of what we know today as the modern submarine, forever changing underwater warfare and the face of naval warfare. As such, the Skilpad has been replicated many times to show new audience the roots of submarine technology, how much it has changed, and the influence it has had on modern submarines. By the 1950s, historian of technology Brooke Hindle credited the Skilpad as "the greatest of the wartime inventions." [48] ​​Die Skilpad remains a source of national as well as regional pride, which led to the construction of several replicas, a number of which exist in Bushnell's home state of Connecticut. As Benjamin Gale noted in 1775, the vessel was "constructed with great simplicity," and it has thus inspired at least four replicas. [49] Many of these followed the designs set down by Bushnell, with "precise and comprehensive descriptions of his submarine," which aided the replication process. [50]

The vessel was a source of particular pride in Connecticut. In 1976, a replica of Skilpad was designed by Joseph Leary and constructed by Fred Frese as a project marking the United States Bicentennial. It was christened by Connecticut's governor, Ella Grasso, and later tested in the Connecticut River. This replica is owned by the Connecticut River Museum.

In 2002, Rick and Laura Brown, two sculptors from Massachusetts, along with Massachusetts College of Art and Design students and faculty, constructed another replica. The Browns set out to gain a better understanding of human ingenuity while keeping Bushnell's design, materials, and technique authentic. "With it, Yankee ingenuity was born," observed Rick Brown, referring to the latest in a long line of commemoration that perceived the Skilpad as something authentically American. Of the temptation to use synthetic and ahistorical materials, Rob Duarte, a MassArts student observed, "It was always a temptation to use silicone to seal the thing," says Rob Duarte, a MassArt student. "Then you realized that someone else had to figure this out with the same limited resources that we were using. That's just an interesting way to learn. You can't do it any other way than by actually doing it." The outer shell of the replica was hollowed, using controlled fire, from a twelve-foot Sitka Spruce. The log was seven feet in diameter and shipped from British Columbia. This replica took twelve days to build and was successfully submerged in water. In 2003, it was tested in an indoor test tank at the United States Naval Academy. Lew Nuckols, a professor of Ocean Engineering at USNA, made ten dives, noting "you feel very isolated from the outside world. If you had any sense of claustrophobia it would not be a very good experience." [51]

In 2003, Roy Manstan, Fred Frese, and the Naval Underwater Warfare Center partnered with students from Old Saybrook High School in Connecticut on a four-year project called The Turtle Project, to construct their own working replica, which they completed and launched in 2007. [52] [53]

On August 3, 2007 three men were stopped by police while escorting and piloting a replica based on the Skilpad within 200 feet (61 m) of RMS Queen Mary 2, then docked at the cruise ship terminal in Red Hook, Brooklyn. The replica was created by New York artist Philip "Duke" Riley and two residents of Rhode Island, one of whom claimed to be a descendant of David Bushnell. Riley claimed that he wanted to film himself next to the Queen Mary 2 for his upcoming gallery show. Riley's was not an exact replica, however, measuring eight feet tall and made of cheap plywood then coated with fiberglass. Its portholes and hatch were collected from a marine salvage company. He also installed pumps to allow him to add or remove water for ballast. Riley christened his vessel Eikel, to note the deviation from Bushnell's original design. The vessel, reported the New York Times, "resembled something out of Jules Verne by way of Huck Finn, manned by cast members from 'Jackass.' The Coast Guard issued Riley a citation for having an unsafe vessel, and for violating the security zone around Queen Mary 2. The NYPD also impounded the submarine. Police Commissioner Raymond W. Kelly, calling this an incident of "marine mischief" assured the public that this was simply an art project and did not, in fact, represent a terrorist threat to the passenger ship. [54]

In 2015, the replica built by Manstan and Frese in 2007 for The Turtle Project was acquired by Privateer Media and used in the television series TURN: Washington's Spies. [55] [56] The submarine was shipped to Richmond, VA where it underwent a full refit and was relaunched for film use in the water. Additional full-scale interior and exterior models were also made by AMC as part of the production.

Also in 2015, Privateer Media used The Turtle Project replica for the Travel Channel series Follow Your Past, hosted by Alison Stewart. Filming took place in August where the submarine was launched with a tether in the Connecticut River in the town of Essex, CT.


Turtle – World’s first submarine attack 1776

On this day in 1776, during the Revolutionary War, the American submersible craft Skilpad attempts to attach a time bomb to the hull of British Admiral Richard Howe’s flagship Arend in New York Harbor. It was the first use of a submarine in warfare.

Submarines were first built by Dutch inventor Cornelius van Drebel in the early 17th century, but it was not until 150 years later that they were first used in naval combat. David Bushnell, an American inventor, began building underwater mines while a student at Yale University. Deciding that a submarine would be the best means of delivering his mines in warfare, he built an eight-foot-long wooden submersible that was christened the Skilpad for its shape. Large enough to accommodate one operator, the submarine was entirely hand-powered. Lead ballast kept the craft balanced.

Donated to the Patriot cause after the outbreak of war with Britain in 1775, Ezra Lee piloted the craft unnoticed out to the 64-gun HMS Arend in New York Harbor on September 7, 1776. As Lee worked to anchor a time bomb to the hull, he could see British seamen on the deck above, but they failed to notice the strange craft below the surface. Lee had almost secured the bomb when his boring tools failed to penetrate a layer of iron sheathing. He retreated, and the bomb exploded nearby, causing no harm to either the Arend of die Skilpad.

During the next week, the Skilpad made several more attempts to sink British ships on the Hudson River, but each time it failed, owing to the operator’s lack of skill. Only Bushnell was really able to competently execute the submarine’s complicated functions, but because of his physical frailty he was unable to pilot the Skilpad in any of its combat missions. During the Battle of Fort Lee, the Skilpad was lost when the American sloop transporting it was sunk by the British.


The First Submarine Attack – 150 Years Ago Today

During the Civil War the civilians suffered hardships, and many came from the blockade of their coast by the Union navy. They could not export their cotton to the world, and could not import many things they needed from the outside. There were several people in the Confederacy who tried to invent new weapons to break this blockade, and the work of several of these men produced the H. L. Hunley, the world’s first successful combat submarine.

James McClintock, one of the boat’s designers

The road to a successfully attack on a Union ship was long and costly. Die Fish Boat, as the Hunley was originally was called, was the third submarine built by Horace Hunley, James McClintock and Baxter Watson. Their previous failures had helped refine the design. She had a crew of eight one steered and the other seven worked at a crank which turned a propeller. More problems were encountered in Charleston – the boat sunk twice and many of the crew were drowned, including Hunley.

Die Hunley was recovered, and George Dixon, a member of the crew who happened to be absent when she sunk, was appointed her commander. After many days of waiting, they went out on the night of February 17, 1864. They had selected as their target the USS Housatonic, a 12 gun wooden steamer. It was five miles off the coast, and it took the crew of the Hunley much effort to get there. At around 8:45 pm they approached the Housatonic, and the officer on watch sighted what looked like a ripple in the water 100 yards out. But looking again he saw an object moving very fast toward the ship. The ship went into an uproar, and they tried to move forward, while the crew fired at the strange object with anything they could lay their hands on. Die Hunley dove and attached its torpedo in an area that happened to be just near the magazine. Seconds later there was a huge explosion, throwing smoke, water, and debris high into the air. A huge hole was ripped in the side of the Housatonic. It sunk in less than five minutes, and the survivors were picked up by boats from other ships. Five men had been killed, and the rest survived. Die Housatonic was the first ship in military history to be sunk by a submarine. But the Hunley never returned to port. Not long after the attack a light was seen by the men watching on shore, a prearranged signal for success, but she never returned.

Die Hunley’s disappearance was one of the most puzzling mysteries of the Civil War. After many years of speculation, she was finally located in the late 20th century lying under 3 feet of mud, and in 2000 the wreck was brought to the surface, and investigated by archaeologists. Inside were found the bones of the crew and many artifacts they carried with them. The ongoing work on the Hunley has answered some questions regarding the boat’s fate. None of the men had left the ship. They were 1000 feet away from the wreck of the Housatonic. There was no structural damage from the explosion.

But many questions still remain. Why did they sink? Did they intentionally dive to wait for the incoming tide and for some reason not surface? Or did the Hunley sink immediately and the wreck gradually move the 1000 feet? Whatever the Hunley’s fate, it was unique. Safe and usable submarines were far in the future, and the next successful military use occurred in 1914, during World War I. With the Hunley’s sinking, the war was almost over for Charleston. New weapons had been developed and used successfully, but none were powerful enough to break the blockade and turn the war around.


The First Submarine Attack Happened During The Revolutionary War

At 11pm on September 6th, 1776, Sargent Ezra Lee began cranking away on a lever that propelled the tiny submersible that he sat inside of. His goal was to make his way to the British Flagship HMS Eagle and attach a crude explosive charge to it, then make haste (at 2mph) safely out of the area.

This is the story of the American Turtle, the world's first submersible used in combat. Built in Connecticut with the direct approval of General George Washington, the Turtle's inventor and underwater explosives guru turned patriot, David Bushnell, realized that stealth could be obtained just at and below the waterline.

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In many ways the Turtle was a super-weapon development program of its day. Before the Declaration of Independence was in the King's hands, America was looking for anything it could use to take on the crushing might of Britain's overwhelming military capabilities.

Die Skilpad was named so because of its shape, like two shells mated together, and for its maritime mission. It measured just three feet wide, 10 feet long and 6 feet tall. It could accommodate one man, which would provide navigation via a small rudder and propulsion via a hand-cranked propeller. It remained water-tight via covering the whole vehicle, mainly built out of oak, in hot tar and running tight steel bands around it.

The rudimentary sub dived by allowing water to pour into a bilge tank at the bottom of the vessel, and it could surface via pumping out that water via a hand-cranked screw pump. In case of an emergency, such as a crack occurring in the boat's hull, there was 200lbs of lead that could be released on command, which would allow the humble little sub to shoot back up to the surface . There was only enough air inside Turtle for one crewman to survive for 30 minutes.

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There was a series of glass port holes on the top of the Skilpad where its hatch met its hull. These provided light during daytime operations and a very basic view for navigational purposes. Since she would mainly operate at night, and a flame would asphyxiate her single crewman, internal illumination was provided by a cork that was covered in bioluminescent fungus.

Although the idea was to keep Bushnell's attack sub secret, a spy working for New York Congressman James Duane outed its existence to the Royal Governor of the Province of New York. After completing trials in both Connecticut and off Long Island, Turtle was transported to the Hudson River for its debut attack on the British Fleet moored there.

On that late summer night in 1776, Sargent Lee slowly fought his way toward the HMS Eagle, which was moored south of Manhattan Island, after being towed out a ways from shore by row boats. The whole mission seemed in jeopardy as Lee's progress was almost non-existent until the current began carrying him toward his objective.

Once within clear view of HMS Eagle, he slowly submerged and crept underneath the big ship's stern, towards its rudder area. Here begun his attempt to drill into the Arend so that the explosive package could be attached. Exhausted, Lee kept trying to break through what seemed like an impenetrable metal barrier (later it was thought that this was the iron plating around the ship's rudder hinge system). He then tried to submerge directly underneath the Arend but the clumsy little sub had issues with staying in one place under the big ship's curved hull.

Lee eventually gave up on the attack, and made his way back out into the Hudson channel. He says that he was spotted by the British as he left, and that multiple teams of sailors rowed out to investigate the strange object in the water. Lee then released the explosive charge, which was an elaborate timed device that used a fragile flintlock ignition system, to distract the search teams. The teams gave up long before the charge went off, which Lee said resulted in a massive explosion sending water high into the air.

Another attempt was made on October 5th that would see Sergeant Lee trying to attach a similar charge, which he called Torpedo incidentally, to a British Frigate also anchored off of Manhattan. He claimed that he was spotted on his approach to the ship so he aborted the mission. A few days later the Skilpad was sunk as it sat atop its tender vessel near New Jersey. The British saw it and engaged it without a fight, supposedly blowing it to smithereens, although Bushnell claimed he salvaged parts of it.

Although the American Skilpad was deemed a failure, it was a successful one. Even George Washington described the Skilpad as an "effort of genius." Obviously Mr. Bushnell was onto something as submarine warfare would become one of the most effective weapons of the 20th Century. Yet it would take almost a century for the technology to advance far enough for a submarine to execute a successful kill by on another ship. In 1864, during the Civil War, the Confederate Navy's submarine H.L. Hunley became the first militarized submarine to sink an enemy ship

Today there are a few replicas of the American Turtle at various maritime museums, yet a semi-accurate functional version of the Skilpad actually made news in 2007 when Brooklyn artist Duke Riley took his unannounced replica of the famous sub into the Hudson River and made his way towards the iconic and giant oceanliner Queen Mary 2 that was moored near Red Hook, Brooklyn. Duke and his ominous looking Turtle were intercepted by Police and Coast Guard who were perplexed at what they saw. Eventually they realized that there was no terrorism objective to Mr. Riley's mission and they impounded his home-built replica and cited him and a couple of friends for operating an unsafe craft, along with some other smaller infractions.


Real story of submarine PNS Ghazi and the mystery behind its sinking

The sinking of Pakistani submarine PNS Ghazi with 90 men aboard in the 1971 Indo-Pak war is regarded as one of the high points of India's first-ever emphatic military victory.

With famed Bollywood producer/director Karan Johar releasing the first-look poster of his studio's new movie The Ghazi Attack, it might be a good time to brush up some history.

Frustrated with the Naval Blockade, Pakistan decided to send the best submarine in its inventory - PNS Ghazi.

PNS Ghazi was assigned with a two-fold objective. The primary goal was to find and sink INS Vikrant and the second one was to lay mines on India's Eastern seaboard with or without accomplishing the primary objective.

Without PNS Ghazi, Pakistan navy could not interfere with Vikrant's operations in East Pakistan. It was extremely risky of sending an ageing submarine completely around the subcontinent to attack the enemy’s flagship in it's home waters. Besides, Ghazi was by then experiencing regular equipment failures and maintenance facilities at Chittagong were poor.

Overruling these objections, PNS Ghazi quietly sailed out of the Karachi Harbour on November 14, 1971.

Having sailed the fleet away to safety, Krishnan roped in INS Rajput, an ageing WWII destroyer that was actually sent to Vishakapatnam for decommissioning. INS Rajput was to pretend to be INS Vikrant, sail out of the Vizag port and generate heavy wireless traffic.

The Indian Navy intentionally breached security by making an unclassified signal in the form of a private Telegram allegedly from one of Vikrant's sailor's asking about the welfare of his mother who was "seriously ill".

Ghazi started looking for Vikrant on November 23 off Madras but was not aware that she was 10 days too late and the Vikrant was actually somewhere near the Andaman islands.

Vice Admiral Krishnan sent for Lt.Inder Singh, the Commanding officer of the Rajput for detailed briefing and told him that a Pakistani submarine had been sighted off Ceylon and was absolutely certain that the submarine would be somewhere around Madras/Vishakaptanm. He made it clear that once Rajput had completed refueling, she must leave the harbor with all navigational aids switched off.

INS Rajput sailed out on 2 December and returned to Vishakapatnam on 3 December and again sailed out with a pilot on board, just before the midnight of 3/4 December and on clearing the harbor, proceeded along the narrow entrance channel. When the ship was halfway in the channel, it suddenly occurred to the Captain that "What if the Pakistani submarine was waiting outside the harbor and torpedoes us as we disembark the pilot who was on board, at the Outer Channel Buoy?" He immediately ordered to stop engines and disembarked the pilot.

Meanwhile, Ghazi being unable to locate INS Vikrant around Vishakapatnam resumed laying mines on the night of 3rd December when Pakistan signalled the commencement of hostilities. Ghazi came up to periscope depth to establish her naviagtional position which was made very difficult due to the blackout and switching off of all navigational aids.

Rajput slowly increased speed to maximum by the time it reached the Outer channel buoy. At this point of time, Ghazi saw or heard a destroyer approaching her at high speed at an almost reciprocal course and went into a steep dive and at the same time put her rudder hard over in order to get away seaward.

The Captain of Destroyer Rajput noticed the disturbance of water caused by the hasty dive and launched two depth charges at that position. The charges struck the submarine that was already in a steep dive causing Ghazi to hit seabed hard when it bottomed.

The fire spread to where the Mines and torpedoes were stored and these blew the forward hull outward. It is also possible that the detonation of the charges triggered a mine that was being kept in a ready state near the torpedo tube. This was Indian Navy's version.

Many theories came forward since and it transpired that naval authorities also destroyed records of the sinking of Ghazi.

Whatever caused the Ghazi to explode, it was nevertheless, the Indian Navy's ingenuity and deceptive planning that caused the submarine to a follow a preset path which ended in a watery grave for its sailors on board.


“Turtle” of 1776 – The First ‘Submarine’ Ever Used In War

The first large-scale example of submarine warfare took place in the First World War, with German U-boats sinking a number of Allied ships, and by the time the Second World War started in 1939, submarine warfare had become commonplace.

While submarines were invented long before the First World War, and were used for warfare as early as the American Civil War, you may be surprised to know that the first known use of a submersible craft in war dates all the way back to 1776, during the American Revolutionary War.

The watercraft in question was a tiny, one-man submersible craft called Skilpad, and it was used to attack the British ship HMS Arend, which was one of a number of Royal Navy ships that were blockading the Hudson River.

A diagram showing the front and rear of Turtle

Skilpad, as this strange submersible watercraft was christened, was the brainchild of an American inventor named David Bushnell. Bushnell, born in Saybrook, Connecticut, was originally a farmer, but after selling his shares in the family farm in his early 30s, he entered Yale College and studied mathematics.

He graduated from Yale in 1775 – after having proved, during his studies, that gunpowder could be detonated underwater – and when the Revolutionary War broke out in April 1775, Bushnell decided to use what he had learned over the course of his studies to develop a method of attacking British ships from below the waves.

Cutaway replica at the Oceanographic Museum, Photo: Monaco Zenit CC BY-SA 3.0

Thus, the idea for Skilpad – the first ever submersible watercraft to be used in warfare – was born. This particular submersible, though, looked and worked nothing like the submarines of the 20th century.

Made of oak with iron wrappings and brass fittings, and similar in shape to an acorn, Skilpad was so named because it looked like two turtle shells stuck together. It was only big enough for a single person to fit inside, and was propelled through the water by means of a treadle-driven propeller and hand-operated crank, which required considerable effort to use, meaning that whoever was piloting the craft had to be very physically fit.

Bushnell mines destroying a small British boat

While the idea for Skilpad was Bushnell’s, he did have some assistance in its design, especially for the complex moving parts of the machinery used to propel the craft through the water, to dive and surface (done by brass pumps that pulled in or expelled seawater as ballast), and to steer the vessel.

These items were made, and possibly designed, by local clockmaker, brass manufacturer, silversmith and inventor Isaac Doolittle. Bushnell’s brother Ezra also assisted with some aspects of Skilpad’s design, and volunteered to be its pilot.

Portrait of Ezra Lee, Turtle’s operator

Visibility came via porthole windows near the top of the craft, and in the hatch on top, via which the pilot would enter and exit the craft. This hatch was also the only way that air could get into Skilpad.

Because of its limited air capacity, traveling underwater would only be done when absolutely necessary – for most of the craft’s journey, it was intended that it travel through the water with the hatch just protruding from the surface.

1976 functional replica that is now at the Connecticut River Museum.Photo: JERRYE AND ROY KLOTZ MD CC BY-SA 3.0

Bushnell intended Skilpad to be used at night to maximize the aspect of stealth, which would be crucial in successfully pulling off the attack against the British ship. This, obviously, presented a serious obstacle in terms of navigation.

To overcome the problem of being able to navigate through dark waters at night, bioluminescent foxfire was attached the needles of Skilpad’s compass and other instruments, so that they could be read in the dark.

A cutaway full-sized replica of the Turtle on display at the Royal Navy Submarine Museum, Gosport, UK.Photo: Geni CC BY-SA 4.0

In terms of weaponry, Skilpad was pretty limited in that department. The idea behind Skilpad was not that it would directly attack an enemy vessel, but rather that it could be used to get close enough to an enemy ship, undetected, in order to attach to the hull an explosive mine, containing around 150 pounds of black powder, which would then be detonated with a timer fuse. Hopefully, the mine would blow a large enough hole in the hull to sink the enemy ship.

Bushnell tested Skilpad in the Connecticut River with his brother Ezra as the pilot. Things seemed to go well, so the craft was transported to Long Island Sound in preparation for active use. Ezra, however, fell ill, and thus a new pilot would have to be found and trained, which set the project back. Three suitable men were found, and, after having moved Skilpad to the Hudson River for training, the craft was then towed to New York Harbor to attack the British fleet.

This 19th-century diagram shows the side views of Turtle. It incorrectly depicts the propeller as a screw blade as seen in the replica photographed above and reported by Sergeant Lee, it was a paddle propeller blade.

Skilpad’s first mission got underway at 11:00 PM on September 6, 1776. Piloted by Sergeant Ezra Lee, Skilpad was targeting HMS Arend, the Royal Navy’s flagship in New York Harbor, which was moored off Governor’s Island. Unfortunately for Lee, the currents were a lot stronger than he had anticipated and the darkness made it difficult to navigate.

By the time he reached HMS Arend, he had been in the water for a number of hours and was likely suffering from both extreme fatigue and carbon dioxide inhalation. He made a few attempts to affix the mine to Arend’s hull, but failed to do so. Seeing as dawn was approaching and he was exhausted, he chose to abort the mission.

A cutaway depiction of David Bushnell’s Turtle

He nonetheless released the mine – with its timer fuse lit – in the hopes that the British would pick it up and that it would explode on one of their ships. The mine did explode, but didn’t take out any enemy craft or troops. Disappointed, Bushnell and his team had Skilpad taken to the Hudson River, where another attack was attempted and also failed.

Skilpad ended up being destroyed when British artillery sank the tender that was transporting it, and thus the first ever submersible watercraft used in war was lost forever – somewhat fittingly – beneath the waves.

Model submarine Bushnell (in section). Maritime Museum. Monaco.

Bushnell, disappointed in Skilpad’s lack of battlefield success, abandoned work on another submersible craft. He did, however, continue to work on floating mines, which he had some success with. He ended up attaining the rank of captain in the Continental Army’s Corps of Engineers, and after the war he moved to Georgia and worked as a doctor and a professor.

Soos vir Skilpad, a fully functional replica was constructed from Bushnell’s designs in the 1970s, and is currently on display at the Connecticut River Foundation.


Forgotten History: Japan's Failed Submarine Attack at Pearl Harbor

Unlike the aerial attack, the submarines failed spectacularly.

The crew of Ha-18 abandoned ship without firing either of their torpedoes after falling victim to a depth charge attack. Nineteen years later, the U.S. Navy recovered the sub from the floor of Hawaii’s Keehi Lagoon and ultimately shipped it off for display at the Japanese Naval Academy at Etajima.

The fate of the fifth submarine, Ha-16, remains controversial. At 10:40 P.M., the crew of the I-16 intercepted a radio message that appeared to repeat the word “Success!” A few hours later, they received a second transmission: “Unable to navigate.”

The belief was that Ha-16 transmitted these alerts. In 2009, a Novadocumentary crew identified three parts of the midget submarine in a navy salvage pile off of West Loch, Hawaii.

A popular belief is that Ha-16 successfully entered the harbor and fired off its torpedoes. Then the crew slipped out and scuttled the sub off of West Loch island before perishing of unknown causes.

U.S. Navy salvage teams probably later scooped up the sub amidst the wreckage of six landing craft destroyed in the West Loch disaster of 1944. They then proceeded to dump the whole pile of debris further out at sea.

That no one ever found the Ha-16’s torpedoes gave rise to the theory that the midget submarine might have successfully torpedoed the battleship USS Oklahoma. The USS West Virginia was another possible target.

A photo taken from an attacking Japanese torpedo bomber at 8:00 A.M., which appears to show torpedo trails lancing towards Oklahoma without a corresponding splash from an air-dropped weapon added more weight to the idea. In addition, the damage to the Oklahoma, and the fact that it capsized, suggested to some it was struck by a tiny sub’s heavier torpedoes.

However, this theory is dubious. The Oklahoma capsized because all the hatches were open for an inspection at the time of the attack. The heavy damage can be explained by the more than a half-dozen air-dropped torpedoes that hit the ship.

It is more likely Ha-16 launched the torpedoes at another vessel. At 10:04 A.M., the light cruiser USS St. Louis reported it had taken fire from submarine, but both torpedoes missed.

In the end, the air attack accomplished what the midget submarines could not. Japan’s naval aviators sank three U.S. battleships, crippling another five, blasted 188 U.S. warplanes — most sitting on the ground — and killed 2,403 American service members.

Unfortunately for officials in Tokyo, the Japanese Navy had struck a powerful blow, but not a crippling one. The bombardment failed to hit the repair facilities and fuel depots, which allowed the U.S. Pacific fleet to get back on its feet relatively quickly.

Just as importantly, not a single U.S. aircraft carrier was in Pearl Harbor at the time. The flattops would swiftly prove their dominance over battleships in the coming Pacific War.

Despite the debacle, the Japanese Navy continued sending Kō-hyōteki into combat. As at Pearl Harbor, the submariners in their tiny ships had very limited successes in operations from Australia to Alaska to Madagascar.


Kyk die video: Die wêreld se eerste digitale rekenmeester uit SA WINSLYN. 14 MEI 2019. kykNET (Mei 2022).